Perutz in 1962
|Born||Max Ferdinand Perutz
19 May 1914
|Died||6 February 2002
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England
|Fields||Molecular biology, Crystallography|
|Institutions||University of Cambridge, Laboratory of Molecular Biology|
|Alma mater||University of Vienna, Peterhouse, Cambridge|
|Doctoral advisor||J.D. Bernal|
|Doctoral students||Francis Crick|
|Known for||Heme-containing proteins|
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize for Chemistry (1962)|
|Spouse||Gisela Clara Peiser (m. 1942; 2 children)|
Max Ferdinand Perutz, OM, CH, CBE, FRS (19 May 1914 – 6 February 2002)1 was an Austrian-born British molecular biologist, who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with John Kendrew, for their studies of the structures of hemoglobin and globular proteins. He went on to win the Royal Medal of the Royal Society in 1971 and the Copley Medal in 1979. At Cambridge he founded and chaired (1962–79) The Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, fourteen of whose scientists have won Nobel Prizes. Perutz's contributions to molecular biology in Cambridge are documented in The History of the University of Cambridge: Volume 4 (1870 to 1990) published by the Cambridge University Press in 1992.
Perutz was born in Vienna, Austria, the son of Adele "Dely" (Goldschmidt) and Hugo Perutz, a textile manufacturer.23 His parents were Jewish by ancestry, but had baptized Perutz in the Catholic religion.456
In 1936, after completing his first university degree at the University of Vienna, Perutz became a research student at the University of Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory, in a crystallography research group under the direction of J.D. Bernal. He completed his PhD. under William Lawrence Bragg. In Cambridge he started to work on haemoglobin, which was to occupy him for most of his professional career. As a research student Perutz became a member of Peterhouse, where he was elected an Honorary Fellow in 1962. He took a keen interest in the Junior Members, and was a regular and popular speaker at the Kelvin Club, the College's scientific society.
Perutz was exiled from Austria because of his Jewish heritage when Nazi Germany annexed that country prior to World War II. When the war did break out, he was rounded up along with other persons of German or Austrian background, and sent to Canada (on orders from Winston Churchill).7 During the war he worked on Project Habakkuk, a secret project to build an ice platform in mid-Atlantic, which could be used to refuel aeroplanes. To that end he investigated the recently invented mixture of ice and woodpulp known as pykrete. He carried out early experiments on pykrete in a secret location underneath Smithfield Meat Market in the City of London. Perutz had been engaged on this project because he had worked on the changes in the arrangement of the crystals in the different layers of a glacier before the War. After the War he returned briefly to glaciology. He demonstrated how glaciers flow.89101112
In 1953 Perutz showed that diffracted X-rays from protein crystals could be phased by comparing the patterns from crystals of the protein with and without heavy atoms attached. In 1959 he employed this method to determine the molecular structure of the protein hemoglobin, which transports oxygen in the blood.citation needed This work resulted in his sharing with John Kendrew the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Nowadays the molecular structures of several thousand proteins are determined by X-ray crystallography every year.
After 1959, Perutz and his colleagues went on to determine the structure of oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin at high resolution. As a result, in 1970, he was at last able to suggest how it works as a molecular machine: how it switches between its deoxygenated and its oxygenated states, in turn triggering the uptake of oxygen and then its release to the muscles and other organs. Further work over the next two decades refined and corroborated the proposed mechanism. In addition Perutz studied the structural changes in a number of hemoglobin diseases and how these might affect oxygen binding. He hoped that the molecule could be made to function as a drug receptor and that it would be possible to inhibit or reverse the genetic errors such as those that occur in sickle cell anemia. A further interest was the variation of the hemoglobin molecule from species to species to suit differing habitats and patterns of behavior. In his final years Perutz turned to the study of changes in protein structures implicated in Huntington and other neurodegenerative diseases. He demonstrated that the onset of Huntington disease is related to the number of glutamine repeats as they bind to form what he called a polar zipper.13
During the early 1950s, while Watson and Crick were determining the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), they made use of unpublished X-ray diffraction images taken by Rosalind Franklin, shown at meetings and shared with them by Maurice Wilkins, and of Franklin's preliminary account of her detailed analysis of the X-ray images included in an unpublished 1952 progress report for the King's College laboratory of Sir John Randall. Randall and others eventually criticized the manner in which Perutz gave a copy of this report to Watson and Crick.
It is debatable whether Watson and Crick should have been granted access to Franklin's results without her knowledge or permission, and before she had a chance to publish a detailed analysis of the content of her unpublished progress report. It is also not clear how important the content of that report had been for Watson and Crick's modeling. In an effort to clarify this issue, Perutz later published the report, arguing that it included nothing that Franklin had not said in a talk she gave in late 1951, which Watson had attended. Perutz also added that the report was addressed to an MRC committee created in order to "establish contact between the different groups of people working for the Council". Randall's and Perutz's labs were both funded by the MRC.
In his later years, Perutz was a regular reviewer/essayist for The New York Review of Books on biomedical subjects. Many of these essays are reprinted in his 1998 book I wish I had made you angry earlier.14 Perutz's flair for writing was a late development. His relative Leo Perutz, a distinguished writer, told Max when he was a boy that he would never be a writer, an unwarranted judgement, as demonstrated by Perutz's remarkable letters written as an undergraduate. They are published in What a Time I Am Having: Selected Letters of Max Perutz. Perutz was delighted to win the Lewis Thomas Prize for Writing about Science in 1997.
Perutz attacked the theories of philosophers Sir Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn and biologist Richard Dawkins in a lecture given at Cambridge on 'Living Molecules' in 1994. He criticised Popper's notion that science progresses through a process of hypothesis formation and refutation, saying that hypotheses are not necessarily the basis of scientific research and, in molecular biology at least, they are not necessarily subject to revision either. For Perutz, Kuhn's notion that science advances in paradigm shifts that are subject to social and cultural pressures is an unfair representation of modern science.
These criticisms extended to scientists who attack religion, in particular to Richard Dawkins. Statements which offend religious faith were for Perutz tactless and simply damage the reputation of science. They are of quite a different order to criticism of the demonstrably false theory of creationism. He concluded that "even if we do not believe in God, we should try to live as though we did."15
Within days of the September 11 attacks in 2001, Perutz wrote to British Prime Minister Tony Blair, appealing to him not to respond with military force: "I am alarmed by the American cries for vengeance and concerned that President Bush's retaliation will lead to the death of thousands more innocent people, driving us into a world of escalating terror and counter-terror. I do hope that you can use your restraining influence to prevent this happening."16
In addition to the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1962, which he shared with John Kendrew for their studies of the structures of hemoglobin and globular proteins, Max Perutz received a number of other important honours: he was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1963, received the Austrian Decoration for Science and Art in 1967, the Royal Medal of the Royal Society in 1971, appointed a Companion of Honour in 1975, received the Copley Medal in 1979 and the Order of Merit in 1989.
In 1980 he was invited to deliver the Royal Institution Christmas Lecture on The Chicken, the Egg and the Molecules.
In 1942, Perutz married Gisela Clara Peiser (1915-2005), a medical photographer. They had two children, Vivien (b. 1944), an art historian; and Robin (b. 1949), a professor of Chemistry at the University of York. Gisela was a refugee from Germany (she was a Protestant whose own father had been born Jewish).17
- Blow, D. M. (2004). "Max Ferdinand Perutz OM CH CBE. 19 May 1914 - 6 February 2002: Elected F.R.S. 1954". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 50: 227–256. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2004.0016. JSTOR 4140521. PMID 15768489.
- Fersht, A. R. (2002). "Max Ferdinand Perutz OM FRS". Nature Structural Biology 9 (4): 245–246. doi:10.1038/nsb0402-245. PMID 11914731.
- Perutz, Max. "Enemy Alien". I Wish I'd Made You Angry Earlier. pp. 73–106.
- Perutz, Max. Science is Not a Quiet Life. pp. 601–630. ISBN 981-02-2774-4.
- Gratzer, Walter (2002-03-05). "Max Perutz (1914–2002)". Current Biology 12 (5): R152–R154. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00727-3. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
- Ramaseshan, S (2002-03-10). "Max Perutz (1914–2002)". Current Science (Indian Academy of Sciences) 82 (5): 586–590. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
- Collins, Paul (2002). "The Floating Island". Cabinet Magazine 12 (7): R152. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00727-3. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
- Perutz, Max. "1-11". Science is Not a Quiet Life.
- Max Ferdinand Perutz OM FRS - Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
- Patel, Kam Perutz rubbishes Popper and Kuhn, The Times Higher Education Supplement, 25 November 1994
- Max Perutz and the Secret of Life, By Georgina Ferry. 352 pp., illustrated. Cold Spring Harbor, NY, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2008 ISBN 978-0-87969-785-3. p. 283 in UK version
- E-mails from Robin Perutz and Vivien Perutz to Martin Packer, August 2012
- 1962. Proteins and Nucleic Acids: Structure and Function.Amsterdam and London. Elsevier
- 1989. Is Science Necessary? Essays on science and scientists . London. Barrie and Jenkins. ISBN 0-7126-2123-7
- 1990. Mechanisms of Cooperativity and Allosteric Regulation in Proteins. Cambridge. Cambridge University PressISBN 0-521-38648-9
- 1992. Protein Structure : New Approaches to Disease and Therapy. New York. Freeman (ISBN 0-7167-7021-0)
- 1997. Science is Not a Quiet Life : Unravelling the Atomic Mechanism of Haemoglobin.Singapore. World Scientific. ISBN 981-02-3057-5
- 2002. I Wish I’d Made You Angry Earlier.Cold Spring Harbor, New York. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 0-8769-674-5
- 2009. What a Time I Am Having: Selected Letters of Max Perutz edited by Vivien Perutz. Cold Spring Harbor, New York. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 978087698445
- Paterlini, Marta, 2006. Piccole Visioni: La Grande Storia di una Molecola. Codice Edizioni. ISBN 88-7578-052-8
- Ferry, Georgina, 2007. Max Perutz and the Secret of Life. Published in the UK by Chatto & Windus (ISBN 0-701-17695-4), and in the USA by the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
- Jean Medawar and Pyke, David, 2000. Hitler's Gift - Scientists Who Fled Nazi Germany. London: RCB. ISBN 1-86066-172-6
- Brown, Andrew, 2005. J. D. Bernal: The Sage of Science. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-920565-5
- De Chadarevian, Soraya, 2002. Designs For Life: Molecular Biology After World War II. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 0-521-57078-6
- Dickerson, Richard E., 2005. Present at the Flood: How Structural Molecular Biology Came About. Sinauer. ISBN 0-87893-168-6;
- John Finch; 'A Nobel Fellow On Every Floor', Medical Research Council 2008, 381 pp, ISBN 978-1-84046-940-0; this book is all about the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge.
- Hager, Thomas, 1995. Force of Nature: The Life of Linus Pauling. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80909-5
- Hunter, Graeme, 2004. Light Is A Messenger, the life and science of William Lawrence Bragg. Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-852921-X.
- Horace Freeland Judson, 1979. "The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology". Touchstone Books, ISBN 0-671-22540-5. 2nd edition: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1996 paperback: ISBN 0-87969-478-5.
- Krude, Torsten, ed., 2003. DNA Changing Science and Society. Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 0-521-82378-1. Being the Darwin Lectures for 2003, including one by Sir Aaron Klug on Rosalind Franklin's role in determining the structure of DNA.
- Brenda Maddox, 2003. Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA. ISBN 0-00-655211-0.
- Olby, Robert; 'Perutz, Max Ferdinand (1914–2002), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online edn, Oxford University Press, Jan 2008
- Matt Ridley, Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code (Eminent Lives). HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-082333-X.
- Sayre, Anne, 1975. Rosalind Franklin and DNA. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-32044-8.
- James D. Watson, 1980 (1968). The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. Atheneum. ISBN 0-689-70602-2. Gunther S. Stent edited the 1980 Norton Critical Edition (ISBN 0-393-01245-X).
- Maurice Wilkins, 2003. The Third Man of the Double Helix: The Autobiography of Maurice Wilkins. ISBN 0-19-860665-6.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Max Perutz|
- Fersht, Alan R. (April 2002). "Max Ferdinand Perutz OM FRS". Nature Structural Biology 9 (4): 245–246. doi:10.1038/nsb0402-245. ISSN 1545-9993. PMID 11914731.
- "Max Perutz". MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology homepage. Medical Research Council (UK). Retrieved 2010-07-16.dead link
- "Max Perutz". Physics World homepage. Institute of Physics. 6 February 2002. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- "Max F. Perutz – Biography". Nobelprize.org. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- Online video interview with Max Perutz, provided by the Vega Science Trust. (~40 mins.)
- Key Participants: Max Perutz – Linus Pauling and the Race for DNA: A Documentary History
- Max Perutz: His life and legacy. Video from the Newton Channel
- Listen to an oral history interview with Max Perutz – a life story interview recorded for National Life Stories at the British Library
Andrew Fielding Huxley
|Fullerian Professor of Physiology
David Chilton Phillips