The Mohorovičić discontinuity (Croatian pronunciation: [moxorôʋiːt͡ʃit͡ɕ]),1 usually referred to as the Moho, is the boundary between the Earth's crust and the mantle. Named after the pioneering Croatian seismologist Andrija Mohorovičić, the Moho separates both the oceanic crust and continental crust from underlying mantle. The Moho lies almost entirely within the lithosphere; only beneath mid-ocean ridges does it define the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary. The Mohorovičić discontinuity was first identified in 1909 by Mohorovičić, when he observed that seismograms from shallow-focus earthquakes had two sets of P-waves and S-waves, one that followed a direct path near the Earth's surface and the other refracted by a high-velocity medium.2
Immediately above the Moho, the velocities of primary seismic waves (P-waves) are synonymous with those through basalt (6.7–7.2 km/s), and below they are similar to that of peridotite or dunite (7.6–8.6 km/s).4 That suggests the Moho marks a change of composition, but the interface appears to be too even for any believable sorting mechanism within the Earth. Near-surface observations suggest such sorting produces an irregular surface.5
During the late 1950s and early 1960s the executive committee of the U.S. National Science Foundation funded drilling a hole through the ocean floor to reach this boundary. However the operation, named Project Mohole, never received sufficient support and was mismanagedcitation needed; the United States Congress canceled it in 1967. Soviet scientists at the Kola Institute pursued the goal simultaneously; after 15 years they reached a depth of 12,260 metres (40,220 ft), the world's deepest hole, before abandoning their attempt in 1989.6
Reaching the discontinuity remains an important scientific objective. A more recentwhen? proposal considers a rock-melting radionuclide-powered capsule with a heavy tungsten needle that can propel itself down to the Moho discontinuity and explore Earth's interior near it and in the upper mantle.7 The Japanese project Chikyu Hakken ("Earth Discovery") also aims to explore this general area with the drilling ship, Chikyū, built for the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP).
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- James Stewart Monroe, Reed Wicander (2008). The changing Earth: exploring geology and evolution (5th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 216. ISBN 0-495-55480-4.
- RB Cathcart & MM Ćirković (2006). Viorel Badescu, Richard Brook Cathcart, Roelof D. Schuiling, ed. Macro-engineering: a challenge for the future. Springer. p. 169. ISBN 1-4020-3739-2.
- Benjamin Franklin Howell (1990). An introduction to seismological research: history and development. Cambridge University Press. p. 77 ff. ISBN 0-521-38571-7.
- "How the Soviets Drilled the Deepest Hole in the World". [[Wired (magazine)|]]. 2008-08-25. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- Ozhovan, M.; F. Gibb, P. Poluektov and E. Emets (August 2005). "Probing of the Interior Layers of the Earth with Self-Sinking Capsules". Atomic Energy 99 (2): 556–562. doi:10.1007/s10512-005-0246-y.
- Harris, P. (1972). "The composition of the earth". In Gass, I. G. et al. (eds). Understanding the earth: a reader in the earth sciences. Horsham: Artemis Press for the Open University Press. ISBN 0-85141-308-0.
- "Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary". Schlumberger. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- Dixon, Dougal (2000). Beginner's Guide to Geology. New York: Bounty Books. ISBN 0-7537-0358-0.
- Britt, Robert Roy (2005-04-07). "Hole Drilled to Bottom of Earth's Crust, Breakthrough to Mantle Looms". Imaginova. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- "Digging a Hole in the Ocean: Project Mohole, 1958-1966". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- Map of the Moho depth of the European plate