Organic foods are produced using methods of organic farming. Currently, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Mexico, Japan and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification in order to market food as organic within their borders. In the context of these regulations, organic food is food produced in a way that complies with organic standards set by national governments and international organizations. Organic food production is a heavily regulated industry, distinct from private gardening.
While the organic standard is defined differently in different jurisdictions, in general organic farming responds to site-specific farming and crop conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. Synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers are not allowed, although certain organically approved pesticides may be used under limited conditions. In general, organic foods are also not processed using irradiation, industrial solvents, or chemical food additives.1
Evidence on differences between organic food and conventional food is controversial. A 2014 review found fewer pesticides and higher levels of antioxidants in organically grown food.2 However, there is insufficient evidence to make claims that organic food is safer or healthier than conventional food.3456 Claims that organic food tastes better are not supported by evidence.37
- 1 Meaning and origin of the term
- 2 Public perception
- 3 Chemical composition
- 4 Organic meat production requirements
- 5 Health and safety
- 6 Economics
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
For the vast majority of its history, agriculture can be described as having been organic; only during the 20th century was a large supply of new chemicals introduced to the food supply.8 The organic farming movement arose in the 1940s in response to the industrialization of agriculture known as the Green Revolution.9
In 1939, Lord Northbourne coined the term organic farming in his book Look to the Land (1940), out of his conception of "the farm as organism," to describe a holistic, ecologically balanced approach to farming—in contrast to what he called chemical farming, which relied on "imported fertility" and "cannot be self-sufficient nor an organic whole."10 This is different from the scientific use of the term "organic," to refer to a class of molecules that contain carbon, especially those involved in the chemistry of life. This class of molecules includes everything likely to be considered edible, and include most pesticides and toxins too, therefore the term "organic" and, especially, the term "inorganic" (sometimes wrongly used as a contrast by the popular press) are both technically inaccurate and completely inappropriate when applied to farming, the production of food, and to foodstuffs themselves.
Early consumers interested in organic food would look for non-chemically treated, non-use of unapproved pesticides, fresh or minimally processed food. They mostly had to buy directly from growers. Later, "Know your farmer, know your food" became the motto of a new initiative instituted by the USDA in September 2009.11 Personal definitions of what constituted "organic" were developed through firsthand experience: by talking to farmers, seeing farm conditions, and farming activities. Small farms grew vegetables (and raised livestock) using organic farming practices, with or without certification, and the individual consumer monitored.citation needed
Small specialty health food stores and co-operatives were instrumental to bringing organic food to a wider audience.citation needed As demand for organic foods continued to increase, high volume sales through mass outlets such as supermarkets rapidly replaced the direct farmer connection.citation needed Today there is no limit to organic farm sizes and many large corporate farms currently have an organic division. However, for supermarket consumers, food production is not easily observable, and product labeling, like "certified organic", is relied on. Government regulations and third-party inspectors are looked to for assurance.citation needed
Organic food production is a self-regulated industry with government oversight in some countries, distinct from private gardening. Currently, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Japan and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification based on government-defined standards in order to market food as organic within their borders. In the context of these regulations, foods marketed as organic are produced in a way that complies with organic standards set by national governments and international organic industry trade organizations.
In the United States, organic production is a system that is managed in accordance with the Organic Foods Production Act (OFPA) of 1990 and regulations in Title 7, Part 205 of the Code of Federal Regulations to respond to site-specific conditions by integrating cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity.12 If livestock are involved, the livestock must be reared with regular access to pasture and without the routine use of antibiotics or growth hormones.13
Processed organic food usually contains only organic ingredients. If non-organic ingredients are present, at least a certain percentage of the food's total plant and animal ingredients must be organic (95% in the United States,14 Canada, and Australia). Foods claiming to be organic must be free of artificial food additives, and are often processed with fewer artificial methods, materials and conditions, such as chemical ripening, food irradiation, and genetically modified ingredients.15 Pesticides are allowed as long as they are not synthetic.16 However, under US federal organic standards, if pests and weeds are not controllable through management practices, nor via organic pesticides and herbicides, "a substance included on the National List of synthetic substances allowed for use in organic crop production may be applied to prevent, suppress, or control pests, weeds, or diseases."17 Several groups have called for organic standards to prohibit nanotechnology on the basis of the precautionary principle18 in light of unknown risks of nanotechnology.19:5–6 The use of nanotechnology-based products in the production of organic food is prohibited in some jurisdictions (Canada, the UK, and Australia) and is unregulated in others.2021:2, section 1.4.1(l)
There are four different levels or categories for organic labeling. 1)‘100%’ Organic: This means that all ingredients are produced organically. It also may have the USDA seal. 2)‘Organic’: At least 95% or more of the ingredients are organic. 3)’Made With Organic Ingredients': Contains at least 70% organic ingredients. 4)‘Less Than 70. Organic Ingredients’: Three of the organic ingredients must be listed under the ingredient section of the label.22 To be certified organic, products must be grown and manufactured in a manner that adheres to standards set by the country they are sold in:
- Australia: NASAA Organic Standard23
- European Union: EU-Eco-regulation
- India: NPOP, (National Program for Organic Production)29
- Indonesia: BIOCert, run by Agricultural Ministry of Indonesia.30
- Japan: JAS Standards31
- United States: National Organic Program (NOP) Standards
The USDA carries out routine inspections of farms that produce USDA Organic labeled foods.32 On April 20, 2010, the Department of Agriculture said that it would begin enforcing rules requiring the spot testing of organically grown foods for traces of pesticides, after an auditor exposed major gaps in federal oversight of the organic food industry.33
There is widespread public belief, promoted by the organic food industry, that organic food is safer, more nutritious, and tastes better than conventional food. These beliefs have fueled increased demand for organic food despite higher prices and lack of scientific evidence in most instances.4534352
Psychological effects such as the “halo” effect, which are related to the choice and consumption of organic food, are also important motivating factors in the purchase of organic food.3 An example of the halo effect was demonstrated by a study of Schuldt and Schwarz.36 The results showed university students who inferred that organic cookies were lower in calories and could be eaten more often than conventional cookies. This effect was observed even when the nutrition label conveyed an identical calorie content. The effect was more pronounced among participants who were strong supporters of organic production, and had strong feelings about environmental issues. The perception that organic food is low-calorie food or health food appears to be common.336
In China the increasing demand for organic products of all kinds, and in particular milk, baby food and infant formula, has been "spurred by a series of food scares, the worst being the death of six children who had consumed baby formula laced with melamine" in 2009 and the 2008 Chinese milk scandal, making the Chinese market for organic milk the largest in the world as of 2014.373839 A Pew Research Centre survey in 2012 indicated that 41% of Chinese consumers thought of food safety as a very big problem, up by three times from 12% in 2008.40
A 2002 review concluded that in the scientific literature examined, “While there are reports indicating that organic and conventional fruits and vegetables may differ on a variety of sensory qualities, the findings are inconsistent.”7 There is evidence that some organic fruit is drier than conventionally grown fruit; a slightly drier fruit may also have a more intense flavor due to the higher concentration of flavoring substances.3
Some foods, such as bananas, are picked when unripe, then artificially induced to ripen using a chemical (such as propylene or ethylene) while in transit, possibly producing a different taste.41 The issue of ethylene use in organic food production is contentious; opponents claim that its use benefits only large companies and that it opens the door to weaker organic standards.42
With respect to chemical differences in the composition of organically grown food compared with conventionally grown food, studies have examined differences in nutrients, antinutrients, and pesticide residues. These studies generally suffer from confounding variables, and are difficult to generalize due to differences in the tests that were done, the methods of testing, and because the vagaries of agriculture affect the chemical composition of food; these variables include variations in weather (season to season as well as place to place); crop treatments (fertilizer, pesticide, etc.); soil composition; the cultivar used, and in the case of meat and dairy products, the parallel variables in animal production.5 Treatment of the foodstuffs after initial gathering (whether milk is pasteurized or raw), the length of time between harvest and analysis, as well as conditions of transport and storage, also affect the chemical composition of a given item of food.5 Additionally, there is evidence that organic produce is drier than conventionally grown produce; a higher content in any chemical category may be explained by higher concentration rather than in absolute amounts.3
A 2014 meta-analysis, which improved on earlier reviews by including more recent studies, found that organically grown crops had higher concentrations of antioxidants, containing 17% more antioxidants overall compared to conventionally grown crops. Concentrations of phenolic acids, flavanones, stilbenes, flavones, flavonols, and anthocyanins were particularly elevated, with flavanones being 69% higher.2
A 2012 survey of the scientific literature did not find significant differences in the vitamin content of organic and conventional plant or animal products, and found that results varied from study to study.5 Produce studies reported on ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) (31 studies), beta-carotene (a precursor for Vitamin A) (12 studies), and alpha-tocopherol (a form of Vitamin E) (5 studies) content; milk studies reported on beta-carotene (4 studies) and alpha-tocopherol levels (4 studies). Few studies examined vitamin content in meats, but these found no difference in beta-carotene in beef, alpha-tocopherol in pork or beef, or vitamin A (retinol) in beef. The authors analyzed 11 other nutrients reported in studies of produce. Only 2 nutrients were significantly higher in organic than conventional produce: phosphorus (median difference, 0.15 mg/kg [minimum difference, −18 mg/kg; maximum difference, 530 mg/kg]) and total phenols (median difference, 31.6 mg/kg [minimum difference, −1700 mg/kg; maximum difference, 10,480 mg/kg]). The result for phosphorus was statistically homogenous, but removal of 1 study reduced the summary effect size and rendered the effect size statistically insignificant. The finding for total phenols was heterogeneous statistically and became statistically insignificant when two studies not reporting sample size were removed. Too few studies of animal products reported on other nutrients for effect sizes to be calculated. The few studies of milk that the authors found were all (but for one) of raw milk, and suggest that raw organic milk may contain significantly more omega-3 fatty acids (median difference, 0.5 g/100 g [minimum difference, 0.23 g/100 g; maximum difference, 4.5 g/100 g]) and vaccenic acid than raw conventional milk (median difference, 0.26 g/100 g [minimum difference, 0.11 g/100 g; maximum difference, 3.1 g/100 g]).
Similarly, organic chicken contained higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids than conventional chicken (median difference, 1.99 g/100 g [minimum difference, 0.94 g/100 g; maximum difference, 17.9 g/100 g]). The authors found no difference in the protein or fat content of organic and conventional raw milk. Minor differences in ascorbic acid, protein concentration and several micronutrients have been identified between organic and conventional foods.4344
The amount of nitrogen content in certain vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables and tubers, has been found to be lower when grown organically as compared to conventionally.4 When evaluating environmental toxins such as heavy metals, the USDA has noted that organically raised chicken may have lower arsenic levels,45 while early literature reviews found no significant evidence that levels of arsenic, cadmium or other heavy metals differed significantly between organic and conventional food products.34 However, a 2014 meta-analysis found lower concentrations of the toxic metal cadmium, particularly in organically grown grains.2
The 2012 meta-analysis determined that detectable pesticide residues were found in 7% of organic produce samples and 38% of conventional produce samples. This result was statistically heterogeneous, potentially because of the variable level of detection used among these studies. Only three studies reported the prevalence of contamination exceeding maximum allowed limits; all were from the European Union.5 A 2014 meta-analysis found that conventionally grown produce was four times more likely to have pesticide residue than organically grown crops.2 The American Cancer Society has stated that no evidence exists that the small amount of pesticide residue found on foods will increase the risk of cancer, though recommends thoroughly washing fruits and vegetables. They have also stated that no research to show that organic food reduces cancer risk compared to foods grown with conventional farming methods.46
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has strict guidelines on the regulation of pesticides. The EPA regulates the amount of each pesticide by setting a tolerance the tolerance is the amount of pesticide residue allowed to be in or on a particular food. The tolerances set by the EPA are rigorous and are exceeded less than 1% of the time in organic food.47
The 2012 meta-analysis determined that prevalence of E. coli contamination was not statistically significant (7% in organic produce and 6% in conventional produce). Four of the five studies found higher risk for contamination among organic produce. When the authors removed the one study (of lettuce) that found higher contamination among conventional produce, organic produce had a 5% greater risk for contamination than conventional alternatives. While bacterial contamination is common among both organic and conventional animal products, differences in the prevalence of bacterial contamination between organic and conventional animal products were statistically insignificant.5
Organic meat certification in the United States authenticates that the farm animals meet USDA organic protocol. These regulations include that the animals are fed certified organic food and that it contains no animal byproducts. Further, organic farm animals can receive no growth hormones or antibiotics, and they must be raised using techniques that protect native species and other natural resources. Irradiation, human sewage sludge and genetic engineering are not allowed with organic animal production.48494950
There is no scientific evidence of benefit or harm to human health from a diet high in organic food, and conducting any sort of rigorous experiment on the subject is very difficult; a 2012 meta-analysis noted that "there have been no long-term studies of health outcomes of populations consuming predominantly organic versus conventionally produced food controlling for socioeconomic factors; such studies would be expensive to conduct."5 A 2009 meta-analysis noted that "Most of the included articles did not study direct human health outcomes. In ten of the included studies (83%), a primary outcome was the change in antioxidant activity. Antioxidant status and activity are useful biomarkers but do not directly equate to a health outcome. Of the remaining two articles, one recorded proxy-reported measures of atopic manifestations as its primary health outcome, whereas the other article examined the fatty acid composition of breast milk and implied possible health benefits for infants from the consumption of different amounts of conjugated linoleic acids from breast milk."34 In addition, as discussed above, difficulties in accurately and meaningfully measuring chemical differences between organic and conventional food make it difficult to extrapolate health recommendations based solely on chemical analysis.
As of 2012, the scientific consensus is that while "consumers may choose to buy organic fruit, vegetables and meat because they believe them to be more nutritious than other food.... the balance of current scientific evidence does not support this view."51 A 12-month systematic review commissioned by the FSA in 2009 and conducted at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine based on 50 years' worth of collected evidence concluded that "there is no good evidence that consumption of organic food is beneficial to health in relation to nutrient content."52 There is no support in the scientific literature that the lower levels of nitrogen in certain organic vegetables translates to improved health risk.4
Claims of improved safety of organic food has largely focused on pesticide residues.4 These concerns are driven by the facts that "(1) acute, massive exposure to pesticides can cause significant adverse health effects; (2) food products have occasionally been contaminated with pesticides, which can result in acute toxicity; and (3) most, if not all, commercially purchased food contains trace amounts of agricultural pesticides."4 However, as is frequently noted in the scientific literature: "What does not follow from this, however, is that chronic exposure to the trace amounts of pesticides found in food results in demonstrable toxicity. This possibility is practically impossible to study and quantify;" therefore firm conclusions about the relative safety of organic foods have been hampered by the difficulty in proper study design and relatively small number of studies directly comparing organic food to conventional food.3473553
Additionally, the Carcinogenic Potency Project,54 which is a part of the US EPA's Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Database Network,55 has been systemically testing the carcinogenicity of chemicals, both natural and synthetic, and building a publicly available database of the results56 for the past ~30 years. Their work attempts to fill in the gaps in our scientific knowledge of the carcinogenicity of all chemicals, both natural and synthetic, as the scientists conducting the Project described in the journal, Science, in 1992:
Toxicological examination of synthetic chemicals, without similar examination of chemicals that occur naturally, has resulted in an imbalance in both the data on and the perception of chemical carcinogens. Three points that we have discussed indicate that comparisons should be made with natural as well as synthetic chemicals.
1) The vast proportion of chemicals that humans are exposed to occur naturally. Nevertheless, the public tends to view chemicals as only synthetic and to think of synthetic chemicals as toxic despite the fact that every natural chemical is also toxic at some dose. The daily average exposure of Americans to burnt material in the diet is ~2000 mg, and exposure to natural pesticides (the chemicals that plants produce to defend themselves) is ~1500 mg. In comparison, the total daily exposure to all synthetic pesticide residues combined is ~0.09 mg. Thus, we estimate that 99.99% of the pesticides humans ingest are natural. Despite this enormously greater exposure to natural chemicals, 79% (378 out of 479) of the chemicals tested for carcinogenicity in both rats and mice are synthetic (that is, do not occur naturally).3) Because the toxicology of natural and synthetic chemicals is similar, one expects (and finds) a similar positivity rate for carcinogenicity among synthetic and natural chemicals. The positivity rate among chemicals tested in rats and mice is ~50%. Therefore, because humans are exposed to so many more natural than synthetic chemicals (by weight and by number), humans are exposed to an enormous background of rodent carcinogens, as defined by high-dose tests on rodents. We have shown that even though only a tiny proportion of natural pesticides in plant foods have been tested, the 29 that are rodent carcinogens among the 57 tested, occur in more than 50 common plant foods. It is probable that almost every fruit and vegetable in the supermarket contains natural pesticides that are rodent carcinogens.57
2) It has often been wrongly assumed that humans have evolved defenses against the natural chemicals in our diet but not against the synthetic chemicals. However, defenses that animals have evolved are mostly general rather than specific for particular chemicals; moreover, defenses are generally inducible and therefore protect well from low doses of both synthetic and natural chemicals.
While studies have shown via chemical analysis, as discussed above, that organically grown fruits and vegetables have significantly lower pesticide residue levels, the significance of this finding on actual health risk reduction is debatable as both conventional foods and organic foods generally have pesticide levels well below government established guidelines for what is considered safe.345 This view has been echoed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture45 and the UK Food Standards Agency.6
A study published by the National Research Council in 1993 determined that for infants and children, the major source of exposure to pesticides is through diet.58 A study published in 2006 by Lu et al. measured the levels of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in 23 school children before and after replacing their diet with organic food. In this study it was found that levels of organophosphorus pesticide exposure dropped from negligible levels to undetectable levels when the children switched to an organic diet, the authors presented this reduction as a significant reduction in risk.59 The conclusions presented in Lu et al. were criticized in the literature as a case of bad scientific communication.6061
More specifically, claims related to pesticide residue of increased risk of infertility or lower sperm counts have not been supported by the evidence in the medical literature.4 Likewise the American Cancer Society (ACS) has stated their official position that "whether organic foods carry a lower risk of cancer because they are less likely to be contaminated by compounds that might cause cancer is largely unknown."62 Reviews have noted that the risks from microbiological sources or natural toxins are likely to be much more significant than short term or chronic risks from pesticide residues.34
In looking at possible increased risk to safety from organic food consumption, reviews have found that although there may be increased risk from microbiological contamination due to increased manure use as fertilizer from organisms like E. coli O157:H7 during organic produce production, there is little evidence of actual incidence of outbreaks which can be positively blamed on organic food production.347 One outbreak of E. coli in Germany was blamed on organic farming of bean sprouts.6364
Demand for organic foods is primarily driven by concerns for personal health and for the environment.65 Global sales for organic foods climbed by more than 170 percent since 2002 reaching more than $63 billion in 201166 while certified organic farmland remained relatively small at less than 2 percent of total farmland under production, increasing in OECD and EU countries (which account for the majority of organic production) by 35 percent for the same time period.67 Organic products typically cost 10 to 40% more than similar conventionally produced products, to several times the price.68 Processed organic foods vary in price when compared to their conventional counterparts.
While organic food accounts for 1–2% of total food production worldwide, the organic food sales market is growing rapidly with between 5 and 10 percent of the food market share in the United States according to the Organic Trade Association,69 significantly outpacing sales growth volume in dollars of conventional food products.
Production and consumption of organic products is rising rapidly in Asia, and both China and India are becoming global producers of organic crops72 and a number of countries, particularly China and Japan, also becoming large consumers of organic food and drink.3773 The disparity between production and demand, is leading to a two-tier organic food industry, typified by significant and growing imports of primary organic products such as dairy and beef from Australia, Europe, New Zealand and the United States.74
China’s domestic organic market is the fourth largest in the world.3775 The Chinese Organic Food Development Center estimated domestic sales of organic food products to be around US$500 million per annum as at 2013. This is predicted to increase by 30 percent to 50 percent in 2014.76
China is the world’s biggest infant formula market with $12.4 billion in sales annually;79 of this, organic infant formula and baby food accounted for approximately 5.5 per cent of sales in 2011.76 Australian organic infant formula and baby food producer Bellamy's Organic have reported that their sales in this market grew 70 per cent annually over the period 2008-2013, while Organic Dairy Farmers of Australia, reported that exports of long-life organic milk to China had grown by 20 to 30 per cent per year over the same period.80
- United States
- In 2003 organic products were available in nearly 20,000 natural food stores and 73% of conventional grocery stores.86
- Since 2000, the use of some organic food is compulsory in Italian schools and hospitals. A 2002 law of the Emilia Romagna region implemented in 2005, explicitly requires that the food in nursery and primary schools (from 3 months to 10 years) must be 100% organic, and the food in meals at schools, universities and hospitals must be at least 35% organic.93
- In 2005 7 percent of Polish consumers buy food that was produced according to the EU-Eco-regulation. The value of the organic market is estimated at 50 million Euros (2006).94
- 70%–80% of the local organic production, amounting to 100 million Euros in 2010, is exported. The organic products market grew to 50 million Euros in 2010.95
- In 2009 Ukraine was in 21st place in the world by area under cultivation of organic food. Much of its production of organic food is exported and not enough organic food is available on the national market to satisfy the rapidly increasing demand.96 The size of the internal market demand for organic products in Ukraine was estimated at over 5 billion euros in 2011, with rapid growth projected for this segment in the future.97 Multiple surveys show that the majority of the population of Ukraine is willing to pay more to buy organic food.9899 On the other hand, many Ukrainians have traditionally maintained their own garden plots, and this may result in underestimation of how much organically produced food is actually consumed in Ukraine.
- The Law on Organic Production was passed by Ukraine's parliament in April of 2011, which in addition to traditional demands for certified organic food also banned the use of GMOs or any products containing GMOs.100 However, the law was not signed by the President of Ukraine101 and in September of 2011 it was repealed by the Verkhovna Rada itself.102 Attempts to pass a new law on organic food production took place throughout 2012.103
- United Kingdom
- Organic food sales increased from just over £100 million in 1993/94 to £1.21 billion in 2004 (an 11% increase on 2003).104where? In 2010, the UK sales of organic products fell 5.9% to £1.73 billion. 86% of households buy organic products, the most popular categories being dairies (30.5% of sales) and fresh fruits and vegetables (23.2% of sales). 4.2% of UK farmland is organically managed.105
- After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, agricultural inputs that had previously been purchased from Eastern bloc countries were no longer available in Cuba, and many Cuban farms converted to organic methods out of necessity.106 Consequently, organic agriculture is a mainstream practice in Cuba, while it remains an alternative practice in most other countries. Although some products called organic in Cuba would not satisfy certification requirements in other countries (crops may be genetically modified, for example107108), Cuba exports organic citrus and citrus juices to EU markets that meet EU organic standards. Cuba's forced conversion to organic methods may position the country to be a global supplier of organic products.109
- "Pestcides in Organic Farming". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 2014-06-17. "Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. Organic foods are produced using only certain pesticides with specific ingredients. Organic pesticides tend to have natural substances like soaps, lime sulfur and hydrogen peroxide as ingredients. Not all natural substances are allowed in organic agriculture; some chemicals like arsenic, strychnine and tobacco dust (nicotine sulfate) are prohibited."
- Barański, M; Srednicka-Tober, D; Volakakis, N; Seal, C; Sanderson, R; Stewart, GB; Benbrook, C; Biavati, B; Markellou, E; Giotis, C; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J; Rembiałkowska, E; Skwarło-Sońta, K; Tahvonen, R; Janovská, D; Niggli, U; Nicot, P; Leifert, C (2014 Jun 26). "Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses.". The British journal of nutrition: 1–18. PMID 24968103.
- Blair, Robert. (2012). Organic Production and Food Quality: A Down to Earth Analysis. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK. ISBN 978-0-8138-1217-5
- Magkos F et al (2006) Organic food: buying more safety or just peace of mind? A critical review of the literature Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 46(1) 23–56 | pmid=16403682
- Smith-Spangler, C; Brandeau, ML; Hunter, GE; Bavinger, JC; Pearson, M; Eschbach, PJ; Sundaram, V; Liu, H; Schirmer, P; Stave, C; Olkin, I; Bravata, DM (September 4, 2012). "Are organic foods safer or healthier than conventional alternatives?: a systematic review.". Annals of Internal Medicine 157 (5): 348–366. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-5-201209040-00007. PMID 22944875.
- "Organic food". UK Food Standards Agency. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011.
- Bourn D, Prescott J (January 2002). "A comparison of the nutritional value, sensory qualities, and food safety of organically and conventionally produced foods". Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 42 (1): 1–34. doi:10.1080/10408690290825439. PMID 11833635.
- History of food, p. 3
- Drinkwater, Laurie E. (2009). "Ecological Knowledge: Foundation for Sustainable Organic Agriculture". In Francis, Charles. Organic farming: the ecological system. ASA-CSSA-SSSA. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-89118-173-6.
- John, Paull (2006). "The Farm as Organism: The Foundational Idea of Organic Agriculture" (PDF). Elementals: Journal of Bio-Dynamics Tasmania 80: 14–18.
- Philpott, Tom. "Quick thoughts on the USDA’s ‘Know Your Farmer’ program". Grist * A Beacon in the Smog. Grist Magazine, Inc. Retrieved 2014-01-28.
- "Agricultural Marketing Service – National Organic Program". Ams.usda.gov. 2008-10-31. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Access to Pasture Rule for Organic Livestock". Ams.usda.gov. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Labeling: Preamble". Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- Allen, Gary J. & Albala, Ken, ed. (2007). The Business of Food: Encyclopedia of the Food and Drink Industries. ABC-CLIO. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-313-33725-3.
- Staff, National Pesticide Information Center Organic Pesticide Ingredients
- Code of Federal Regulations 7 CRF § 205.206(2e)
- Paull, J. & Lyons, K. (2008) Nanotechnology: The Next Challenge for Organics, Journal of Organic Systems, 3(1) 3–22
- National Research Council. A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials National Academies Press: Washington DC. 2012
- Staff, The Organic & Non-GMO Report, May 2010. Canada bans nanotechnology in organics
- Canada General Standards Board Organic Production Systems General Principles And Management Standards (CAN/CGSB-32.310-2006)dead link
- “USDA organic: what qualifies as organic?" Massage Therapy Journal Spring 2011: 36+. Academic OneFile.
- "Steps to Certification – Within Australia". NASAA. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Organic Products Regulations". Canada Gazette, Government of Canada. 2December 21, 2006. Retrieved 2012-10-02. dead link
- "KRAV". Krav.se. Retrieved 2012-10-02.dead link
- "Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs". DEFRA. Retrieved 2012-10-02.
- "About Us". (Google translated into English). Stowarzyszenie "Polska Ekologia". Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- "Debio Organic certification". Debio.no. Retrieved 2012-10-02.
- NPOP, (National Program for Organic Production)
- "BIOCert". Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- JAS Standards
- Nestle, Marion. 2006. What to Eat. NY: North Point Press. ISBN 978-0-86547-738-4
- Neuman, William (March 19, 2010). "U.S. Plans Spot Tests of Organic Products". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- Dangour AD et al (2009) Nutritional quality of organic foods: a systematic review The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92(1) 203–210
- Schuldt, J.P. and Schwarz, N. (2010). The "organic" path to obesity? Organic claims influence calorie judgments and exercise recommendations" Judgment and Decision Making 5: 144–150.
- Chen, Jue (February 2014). "Food safety in China opens doors for Australia’s agri sector". Australia China Connections. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Stewart, Emily. "Chinese babies looking for more Aussie organic milk". abc.net.au. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Organic exports to China on the rise". Dynamic Export. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Wikes, Richard. "What Chinese are worried about". Pew Research Global Attitudes Project. Pew Research. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Banana Wars", by Joanna Blythman (The Observer, 13-Mar-2005) and "Bananas & Plantains", Honduran Agricultural Research Foundation (FHIA).
- "The organic label just won't stick if feds keep this up", by Julie Deardorff (Chicago Tribune, 9-Dec-2005) and "Dole urges organics board to approve ethylene use", by Joan Murphy (The Produce News, 22-Nov-2005).
- Magkos F et al (2003 Organic food: nutritious food or food for thought? A review of the evidence International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 54(5):357–71
- J.N. Pretty JN Et al (2005) Farm costs and food miles: An assessment of the full cost of the UK weekly food basket Food Policy 30: 1–19
- Gold, Mary. "Should I Purchase Organic Foods?". USDA. Retrieved 5 March 2011.dead link
- "Common questions about diet and cancer". Cancer.org. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- 2013 November, “The ruling on organic foods: are they worth the extra price?” “Healthy Years” ISSN 1551-4617, 11/2013, Volume 10, Issue 11, p. 1
- "Organic Livestock Requirements". United States Department of Agriculture. July 2013. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- "How does USDA define the term organic? | USDA". Usda.gov. 2004-06-24. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- "Issues | Sewage Sludge | How Do I Know if My Food was Grown in Sewage Sludge?". Center for Food Safety. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- "The Food Standards Agency’s Current Stance". Archived from the original on March 31, 2010.
- Sophie Goodchild for the London Evening Standard. July 29, 2009 "Organic food 'no healthier' blow"
- Rosen, Joseph D. (May 2010). "A Review of the Nutrition Claims Made by Proponents of Organic Food". Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 9 (3): 270–277. doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00108.x.
- Carcinogenic Potency Project Official Website
- National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) DSSTox Official Website
- Publicly available Toxnet database from US NLM
- Gold, L.S., et al (1992) Rodent carcinogens: Setting priorities" Science 258: 261–265
- National Research Council. Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children. National Academies Press; 1993. ISBN 0-309-04875-3. Retrieved 10-Apr-2006.
- Lu, Chensheng, et al. (2006). "Organic Diets Significantly Lower Children’s Dietary Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticides". Environmental Health Perspectives 114 (2): 260–263. doi:10.1289/ehp.8418. PMC 1367841. PMID 16451864.dead link
- Krieger RI et al (2006) OP Pesticides, Organic Diets, and Children’s Health" Environ Health Perspect 114(10) A572.
- Alex Avery (2006) Organic Diets and Children’s Health Environ Health Perspect.114(4) A210–A211.
- "Food additives, safety, and organic foods". American Cancer Society. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "Analysis: E.coli outbreak poses questions for organic farming". Reuters. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- "Tracing seeds, in particular fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, in relation to the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O104:H4 2011 Outbreaks in Germany and France". European Food Safety Authority. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
- Conflicting demands of agricultural production and environmental conservation: consumers' perception of the quality and safety of food (2004). Filho, Walter Leal, ed. Ecological agriculture and rural development in Central and Eastern European countries. IOS Press. pp. 147–148. ISBN 978-1-58603-439-9.
- Global organic sales reach $63 billion, U.S. is largest market, Ag Professional, June 25, 2013.
- OECD Compendium of Agri-Environmental Indicators, OECD, June 25, 2013.
- Winter, Carl K.; Davis, Sarah F. (November 2006). "Organic Foods". Journal of Food Science 71 (9): R117–R124. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00196.x.
- Organic Food Facts, Organic Trade Association, 2010.
- "The Global Market for Organic Food & Drink". Organic Monitor. 2002. Retrieved 2006-06-20.
- Global organic sales reach $63 billion, Ag Professional
- Food Scandals Driving Organic Food Sales. The Asian Market for organic Food & Drink. 2nd Edition (#5002-40). February 2011. p. 56. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- "Industry Statistics and Projected Growth". Organic Trade Association. June 2010. Retrieved 2011-05-28.
- Paull, John. "The Uptake of Organic Agriculture: A Decade of Worldwide Development". Journal of Social and Development Sciences (Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford) 2 (3): 111–120. ISSN 2221-1152. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- "A healthy future for all? Improving food quality for Asia". The Economist.
- Chen, Jue. "Australia’s Share of China’s organic pie". Australia China Connections. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- "The Census of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA, 2010". USDA Census of Agriculture. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "Annual report: Natural/Organic Share of Total Beef (Dollar and Pound)". Cattlemen's Beef Board & National Cattlemen's Beef Association. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- Harney, Alexandra. "Special Report - How Big Formula bought China". EuroMonitor. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- Han, Esther (November 17, 2013). "Organic food: Companies pay $50,000 for Chinese certification". Good Food. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Daniells, Stephen. "US organic food market to grow 14% from 2013-18". Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- Carl Edstrom of IRI and Kathryn Peters of SPINS October 2013 Natural / Organic Consumer Segmentation, A Total Market Perspective
- Caroline Scott-Thomas for FoodNavigator-USA.com, April 24, 2012. US organic market continues to outpace conventional food sales growth Recent Growth Patterns in the U.S. Organic Foods Marketdead link
- Hansen, Nanette (2004). "Organic food sales see healthy growth". MSNBC. Retrieved 2006-06-20.
- Warner, Melanie. "What Is Organic? Powerful Players Want a Say". New York Times: Nov. 1, 2005.
- Greene, Catherine; Dimitri, Carolyn (2003). "Organic Agriculture: Gaining Ground". USDA Economic Research Service. Retrieved 2006-06-20.
- Dryer, Jerry (2003). "Market Trends: Organic Lessons". Prepared Foods. Retrieved 2006-06-20.
- Strom, Stephanie (July 7, 2012). "Has ‘Organic’ Been Oversized?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- Macey, Anne (2007). "Retail Sales of Certified Organic Food Products in Canada in 2006" (PDF). Organic Agriculture Center of Canada. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
- Macey, Anne (2007). "Retail Sales of Certified Organic Food Products in Canada in 2006. Organic food is not all organic. only food labeled with a 100% organic sticker are pesticide-free/" (PDF). Organic Agriculture Center of Canada. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
- Typisch.at (RollAMA survey). "Bio-Aufwärtstrend in Österreich". Retrieved 2012-01-19.
- BIO AUSTRIA. "Wirtschaftlicher Durchbruch für Bio-Fachhandel im Jubiläumsjahr". Retrieved 2007-11-13.
- Organic Consumers Association. "Italian Law Calls for All Organic Foods in Nation's Schools". Archived from the original on 2012-03-15. Retrieved 2013-06-21.
- SixtyTwo International Consultants. "The organic food market in Poland: Ready for take-off". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-10-08.
- Cult Market Research. "Piata de produse bio din Romania in cifre". Retrieved 2012-01-18.
- УНІАН: В Україні зростає попит на органічні продукти, 16.10.2009 (Ukrainian)
- Аналітичні дослідження // Федерація органічного руху України (Ukrainian)
- Більшість споживачів бажають купувати більш дорогі екологічно чисті товари // РБК-Україна, 13.09.2010(Ukrainian)
- Исследование трендов: Готовы ли украинцы покупать экологически чистые товары? // дослідницький центр компанії INRISE Development, вересень 2010 р.(Ukrainian)
- www.organic.com.ua, 21.04.2011 (Ukrainian)
- Президент відхилив Закон України «Про органічне виробництво» // www.organic.com.ua (Ukrainian)
- Закон відхилено // www.organic.ua (Ukrainian)
- нові законопроекти в 2012 // www.organic.com.ua (Ukrainian)
- Organic Centre Wales. "Organic statistics – the shape of organic food and farming". Retrieved 2007-10-08.dead link
- Soil Association. "Organic market report 2011". Retrieved 2012-01-18.
- Auld, Alison. "Farming with Fidel". Retrieved 2007-10-08.dead link
- Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. "Cuban GMO Vision" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-10-08.dead link
- Centro de Ingeniería Genética y Biotecnología de Cuba. "DirecciÓn de Investigaciones Agropecuarias". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-10-08.
- Office of Global Analysis, FAS, USDA. "Cuba’s Food & Agriculture Situation Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-09-04.dead link
- Canavari, Maurizio & Olson, Kent D., ed. (2007). Organic food: consumers' choices and farmers' opportunities. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-39581-4.
- Duram, Leslie A. (2010). Encyclopedia of Organic, Sustainable, and Local Food. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35963-7.
- Givens, D. Ian et al. (2008). Health Benefits of Organic Food: Effects of the Environment. CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-459-0.
- Gussow, Joan Dye (2002). This Organic Life: Confessions of a Suburban Homesteader. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 1-931498-24-5.
- Guthman, Julie (2004). Agrarian Dreams: The Paradox of Organic Farming in California. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24095-2.
- Hamilton, Denis; Crossley, Stephen (editors) (2004). Pesticide residues in food and drinking water. J. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-48991-3.
- Hond, Frank et al. (2003). Pesticides: problems, improvements, alternatives. Blackwell Science. ISBN 0-632-05659-2.
- Nestle, Marion (2007). Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25403-9.
- PAN-UK (2008). Pesticides on a Plate. PAN-UK (UK). ISBN 978-0-9549542-6-0.
- Pretty, J. N., et al. (2006). "Resource-Conserving Agriculture Increases Yields in Developing Countries". Environmental Science and Technology 40 (4): 1114–1119. doi:10.1021/es051670d. PMID 16572763.dead link
- Scialabba, Nadia && Hattam, Caroline, ed. (2002). Organic agriculture, environment and food security. FAO, United Nations. ISBN 978-92-5-104819-1.
- Stokstad, Erik (May 2002). "Organic Farms Reap Many Benefits". Science 296 (5573): 1589. doi:10.1126/science.296.5573.1589a. PMID 12040154.dead linkdead link
- Wargo, John (1998). Our Children's Toxic Legacy: How Science and Law Fail to Protect Us from Pesticides. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07446-8.
- Watson, David H. (editor) (2004). Pesticide, veterinary and other residues in food. Woodhead Publishing. ISBN 1-85573-734-5.
- Williams, Christine (2002). "Nutritional quality of organic food: shades of grey or shades of green?". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. pp. 19–24.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Organic food.|
- Organic Consumers Association
- Organic Information Center
- A World Map of Organic Agriculture
- USDA National Organic Program Responsible for administering organic food production & labeling standards in the United States
- "Organic Food"dead link, UK Food Standards Agency
- "Organics Olympiad 2011: Global Indices of Leadership in Organic Agriculture"—Journal of Social and Development Sciences