Portal:Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Portal:Pharmacy and Pharmacology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Portal:Pharmacy and Pharmacology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
THE PHARMACY and PHARMACOLOGY PORTAL
Welcome to the
Pharmacy and Pharmacology Portal! The purpose of this page is to organize many of the pharmacology and drug-related articles on Wikipedia, to highlight some of the best articles, and to point out some of the recent activities and developments of WikiProject Pharmacology.
(in Pharmacology Greek: meaning remedy, and pharmacon (φάρμακον) logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals. The field encompasses mechanisms of drug action, drug composition and properties, interactions, toxicology, therapies, medical applications, and antipathogenic capabilities.
(from the Pharmacy Greek φάρμακον = remedy) is a transitional field between the health sciences and the chemical sciences, as well as the profession charged with ensuring the safe use of medications. Traditionally, pharmacists have compounded and dispensed medications based on prescriptions from physicians. More recently, pharmacy has come to include other services related to patient care, including clinical practice, medication review, and drug information. Some of these new pharmaceutical roles are now mandated by law in various legislatures. Pharmacists, therefore, are drug therapy experts, and the primary health professionals who optimize medication management to produce positive health outcomes.
The field of pharmacy can generally be divided into three main disciplines:
Pharmaceutics concerns on how to convert medication and drugs to suitable drug dosage forms.
Inside every branch of pharmacy are many specialized branches related to many scientific disciplines. This makes pharmaceuticals related to the majority of pure and applied sciences. For example,
medicinal chemistry can be divided into: ADME, bioavailability, chemogenomics, drug design, drug discovery, enzyme inhibition, mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, pharmacophore perception, Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships, and Structure-Activity Relationships.
Biology (including molecular biology and biochemistry), physiology, organic chemistry, microbiology, parasitology, and also botany are all related in some way to the pharmaceutical sciences. Recently, the field of drug discovery and drug design has developed with new technologies invented in other fields, such as bioinformatics, cheminformatics, computational chemistry, genetics, pharmacogenomics, and proteomics.
Ball-and-stick model of linezolid
is a synthetic Linezolid antibiotic used for the treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to several other antibiotics. A member of the oxazolidinone class of drugs, linezolid is active against most Gram-positive bacteria that cause disease, including streptococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and methicillin-resistant . The main Staphylococcus aureus indications of linezolid are infections of the skin and soft tissues and pneumonia (particularly hospital-acquired pneumonia), although off-label use for a variety of other infections is becoming popular. Discovered in the late 1980s and first approved for use in 2000, linezolid was the first commercially available oxazolidinone antibiotic. As of 2009, it is the only marketed oxazolidinone, although others are in development. As a protein synthesis inhibitor, it stops the growth of bacteria by disrupting their production of proteins. Resistance to linezolid has remained very low since it was first detected in 1999, although it may be increasing. When administered for short periods, linezolid is a relatively safe drug; it can be used in patients of all ages and in people with liver disease or poor kidney function. ( ) more...
Featured pharmacology articles:
Antioxidant — Bupropion — Icos — Linezolid — Psilocybin — Sertraline — Treatment of multiple sclerosis — Water fluoridation
Good pharmacology articles:
Alprazolam — Aspirin — Benzodiazepine — Benzylpiperazine — CS gas — Clindamycin — Doxorubicin — Ethanol — Frances Oldham Kelsey — Heparin — History of aspirin — Homeopathy — Metformin — Midazolam — Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies — Opium — Orlistat — Paracetamol toxicity — Percy Lavon Julian — Psychoactive drug — Receptor antagonist — Resveratrol — Selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist — Serotonin syndrome — Serpin — Vitamin C — Warfarin
...that a high speed
tablet press (animation shown) can punch out over one million tablets an hour?
, a simple inexpensive chemical, is being studied as a potential treatment for cancer? bromopyruvic acid
Pharmacy web resources
History and traditions
Note: the following sites are not necessarily "reliable, third-party, published sources with a reputation for fact-checking and accuracy" for the purposes of WP:RS
Medications and drugs topics
Types of medication
Upper digestive tract:
antacids, reflux suppressants, antiflatulents, antidopaminergics, proton pump inhibitors, H2-receptor antagonists, cytoprotectants, prostaglandin analogues Lower digestive tract:
laxatives, antispasmodics, antidiarrhoeals, bile acid sequestrants, opioids
beta-receptor blocker, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, antiarrhythmics, nitrate, antianginals, vasoconstrictor, vasodilator, peripheral activator Affecting
Blood pressure: ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, alpha blocker Coagulation:
anticoagulant, heparin, antiplatelet drug, fibrinolytic, anti-hemophilic factor, haemostatic drugs Atherosclerosis/cholesterol agents:
hypolipidaemic agents, statins.
hypnotic, anaesthetics, antipsychotic, antidepressant (including tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, lithium salt, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), anti-emetic, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic, anxiolytic, barbiturate, movement disorder drug, stimulant (including amphetamines), benzodiazepine, cyclopyrrolone, dopaminergic, dopamine antagonist, antihistamine, cholinergic, anticholinergic, emetic, cannabinoids, serotonergic, 5-HT antagonist
The main classes of painkillers are
NSAIDs, opioids and various orphans such as paracetamol, tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants.
NSAIDs (including COX-2 selective inhibitors), muscle relaxant, neuromuscular drug
For the eye
General: adrenergic neurone blocker,
astringent, ocular lubricant Diagnostic:
topical anesthetics, sympathomimetics, parasympatholytics, mydriatics, cycloplegics Anti-bacterial:
antibiotics, topical antibiotics, sulfa drugs, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones Anti-viral:
imidazoles, polyenes Anti-inflammatory:
NSAIDs, corticosteroids Anti-allergy:
mast cell inhibitors Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists,
beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/ hyperosmotics, cholinergics, miotics, parasympathomimetics, prostaglandin agonists/prostaglandin inhibitors. nitroglycerin
For the ear, nose and oropharynx
sympathomimetic, antihistamine, anticholinergic, NSAIDs, steroid, antiseptic, local anesthetic, antifungal, cerumenolytic
bronchodilator, NSAIDs, anti-allergic, antitussive, mucolytic, decongestant
corticosteroid, beta-receptor antagonist, anticholinergic, steroid
androgen, antiandrogen, gonadotropin, corticosteroid, growth hormone, insulin, antidiabetic ( sulfonylurea, biguanide/ metformin, thiazolidinedione, insulin), thyroid hormones, antithyroid drugs, calcitonin, diphosponate, vasopressin analogues
antifungal, alkalising agent, quinolones, antibiotic, cholinergic, anticholinergic, anticholinesterase, antispasmodic, 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, selective alpha-1 blocker, sildenafil
hormonal contraception, progestogen only contraception, spermicide, ormeloxifene
NSAIDs, anticholinergic, haemostatic drug, antifibrinolytic, Hormone Replacement Therapy, bone regulator, beta-receptor agonist, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, LHRH
gamolenic acid, gonadotropin release inhibitor, progestogen, dopamine agonist, oestrogen, prostaglandin, gonadorelin, clomiphene, tamoxifen, Diethylstilbestrol
emollient, anti-pruritic, antifungal, disinfectant, scabicide, pediculicide, tar products, vitamin A derivatives, vitamin D analogue, keratolytic, abrasive, systemic antibiotic, topical antibiotic, hormones, desloughing agent, exudate absorbent, fibrinolytic, proteolytic, sunscreen, antiperspirant, corticosteroid
For infections and infestations
antibiotic, antifungal, antileprotic, antituberculous drug, antimalarial, anthelmintic, amoebicide, antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiserum
vaccine, immunoglobulin, immunosuppressant, interferon, monoclonal antibody
tonic, iron preparation,
electrolyte, parenteral nutritional supplement, vitamins, anti-obesity drug, anabolic drug, haematopoietic drug, food product drug
cytotoxic drug, sex hormones, aromatase inhibitor, somatostatin inhibitor, recombinant interleukins, G-CSF, erythropoietin
A euthanaticum is used for
euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, see also barbiturates.
Polypharmacy: suggests that multiple use of prescribed and non-prescribed medications, (use of 5 or more), can have adverse effects on the recipient.
Zoopharmacognosy: Animal usage of drugs and non-foods.
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