The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, lbm, ℔1) is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement. A number of different definitions have been used, the most common today being the international avoirdupois pound which is legally defined as exactly 0.45359237 kilograms.
The United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations agreed upon common definitions for the pound and the yard. Since 1 July 1959, the international avoirdupois pound has been defined as exactly 0.45359237 kg.34
In the United Kingdom, the use of the international pound was implemented in the Weights and Measures Act 1963.5
The yard or the metre shall be the unit of measurement of length and the pound or the kilogram shall be the unit of measurement of mass by reference to which any measurement involving a measurement of length or mass shall be made in the United Kingdom; and- (a) the yard shall be 0.9144 metre exactly; (b) the pound shall be 0.45359237 kilogram exactly.—Weights and Measures Act, 1963, Section 1(1)
An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to exactly 7,000 grains. The conversion factor between the kilogram and the international pound was therefore chosen to be divisible by 7, and an (international) grain is thus equal to exactly 64.79891 milligrams.
Historically, in different parts of the world, at different points in time, and for different applications, the pound (or its translation) has referred to broadly similar but not identical standards of mass or force.6
A number of different definitions of the pound have been used in Britain. Amongst these are the avoirdupois pound and the obsolete tower, merchant's and London pounds.7 The weight of precious metals when given in pounds and/or ounces usually assumes Troy pounds and ounces; these units are not otherwise used today.
|Avoirdupois||1||175⁄144||35⁄27||28⁄27||35⁄36||16||14 7⁄12||15 5⁄9||7000||9955 5⁄9||454||10⁄22|
|Troy||144⁄175||1||16⁄15||64⁄75||4⁄5||13 29⁄175||12||12 4⁄5||5760||8192||373||3⁄8|
|Tower||27⁄35||15⁄16||1||4⁄5||3⁄4||12 12⁄35||11 1⁄4||12||5400||7680||350||7⁄20|
|Merchant||27⁄28||75⁄64||5⁄4||1||15⁄16||15 3⁄7||14 1⁄16||15||6750||9600||437||7⁄16|
The avoirdupois pound, also known as the wool pound, first came into general use c. 1300. It was initially equal to 6992 troy grains. The pound avoirdupois was divided into 16 ounces. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the avoirdupois pound was redefined as 7,000 troy grains. Since then, the grain has often been an integral part of the avoirdupois system. By 1758, two Elizabethan Exchequer standard weights for the avoirdupois pound existed, and when measured in troy grains they were found to be of 7,002 grains and 6,999 grains.89
In the United Kingdom, weights and measures have been defined by a long series of Acts of Parliament, the intention of which has been to regulate the sale of commodities. Materials traded in the marketplace are quantified according to accepted units and standards in order to avoid fraud. The standards themselves are legally defined so as to facilitate the resolution of disputes brought to the courts; only legally defined measures will be recognised by the courts. Quantifying devices used by traders (weights, weighing machines, containers of volumes, measures of length) are subject to official inspection, and penalties apply if they are fraudulent.
The Weights and Measures Act of 1878 marked a major overhaul of the British system of weights and measures, and the definition of the pound given there remained in force until the 1960s. The pound was defined thus (Section 4) 'The ... platinum weight ... deposited in the Standards department of the Board of Trade ... shall continue to be the imperial standard of ... weight ... and the said platinum weight shall continue to be the Imperial Standard for determining the Imperial Standard Pound for the United Kingdom'. Paragraph 13 states that the weight 'in vacuo' of this standard shall be called the Imperial Standard Pound, and that all other weights mentioned in the act and permissible for commerce shall be ascertained from it alone. The First Schedule of the Act gave more details of the standard pound:- It is a platinum cylinder nearly 1.35 inches high, and 1.15 inches diameter, and the edges are carefully rounded off. It has a groove about 0.34 inches from the top, to allow the cylinder to be lifted using an ivory fork. It was constructed following the destruction of the Houses of Parliament by fire in 1834, and is stamped P.S. 1844, 1 lb (P.S. stands for 'Parliamentary Standard'). This definition of the Imperial pound remains unchanged.
The 1878 Act said that contracts worded in terms of metric units would be deemed by the courts to be made according to the Imperial units defined in the Act, and a table of metric equivalents was supplied so that the Imperial equivalents could be legally calculated. Thus defining, in UK law, metric units in terms of Imperial ones. The equivalence for the pound is given as 1 lb = 453.59265 g or 0.45359 kg, which would make the kilogram weigh approximately 2.2046213 lb. In 1883, it was determined jointly by the Standards Department of the Board of Trade and the Bureau International that 0.4535924277 kg was a better approximation, and this figure, rounded to 0.45359243 kg was given legal status by an Order in Council in May 1898.10
However in 1963 a new Weights and Measures Act reversed this relationship and the pound was defined for the first time as a mass equal to 0.45359237 kg to match the definition of the international pound agreed in 1959.
The troy pound is no longer in general use or legal unit for trade. In the United Kingdom, the use of the troy pound was abolished on 6 January 1879 by the WMA Weights and Measures Act of 1878, though the troy ounce was retained. The troy ounce is still used for measurements of precious metals such as gold, silver, and platinum, and sometimes gems such as opals.
Most measurements of the mass of precious metals using pounds refer to troy pounds, even though it is not always explicitly stated that this is the case. Some notable exceptions are:
- Encyclopædia Britannica which uses either avoirdupois pounds or troy ounces, likely never both in the same article, and
- the mass of Tutankhamun's sarcophagus lid. This is 110 kilograms. It is often stated to have been 242 or 243 avoirdupois pounds but sometimes, much less commonly, it is stated as 296 (troy) pounds.
The system called tower weight was the more general name for King Offa's pound. This dates to 757 AD and was based on the silver penny. This in turn was struck over Arabic dirhams (2d). The pound was based on the weight of 120 Arabic silver dirhams, which have been found in Offa's Dyke. The same coin weight was used throughout the Hanseatic League.citation needed
The mercantile pound (1304) of 6750 troy grains, or 9600 tower grains, derives from this pound, as 25 shilling-weights or 15 tower ounces, for general commercial use. Multiple pounds based on the same ounce were quite common. In much of Europe, the apothecaries' and commercial pounds were different numbers of the same ounce.citation needed
The tower system was referenced to a standard prototype found in the Tower of London and ran concurrently with the avoirdupois and troy systems, until it fell out of use and was abolished in 1527.
|1 mercantile pound (15 oz)||=||9,600 tower grains||=||6,750 troy grains|
|1 tower pound (12 oz)||=||7,680 tower grains||=||5,400 troy grains|
|1 tower ounce (20 dwt)||=||640 tower grains||=||450 troy grains|
|1 tower pennyweight (dwt)||=||32 tower grains||=||22½ troy grains|
The merchants' pound (mercantile pound, libra mercantoria or commercial pound) was equal to 9,600 wheat grains (15 tower ounces or 6,750 grains) and was used in England until the 14th century for most goods (other than money, spices and electuaries).12
The London pound is that of the Hansa, as used in their various trading places. This is based on 16 tower ounces, each ounce divided as the tower ounce. It never became a legal standard in England; the use of this pound waxed and waned with the influence of the Hansa itself.
A London pound was equal to 7,200 troy grains (16 tower ounces or, equivalently, 15 troy ounces).
|1 London pound||=||1⅓ tower pounds||=||7,200 troy grains|
|1 London ounce||=||1 tower ounce||=||450 troy grains|
|1 London pennyweight||=||1 tower pennyweight||=||22½ troy grains|
In the United States, the avoirdupois pound as a unit of mass has been officially defined in terms of the kilogram since the Mendenhall Order of 1893. That Order defined the pound to be 2.20462 pounds to a kilogram. The following year this relationship was refined as 2.20462234 pounds to a kilogram, following a determination of the British pound.10
According to a 1959 NIST publication, the United States 1894 pound differed from the international pound by approximately one part in 10 million.15 The difference is so insignificant that it can be ignored for almost all practical purposes.16
The libra (Latin for "scales / balance") is an ancient Roman unit of mass that was equivalent to approximately 328.9 grams.171819 It was divided into 12 uncia, or ounces. The libra is the origin of the abbreviation for pound, lb. The commonly used abbreviation lbs to indicate the plural unit of measurement does not reflect Latin usage, in which lb is both the singular and plural abbreviation.
The Byzantines used a series of measurements known as pound (Latin: libra, Greek: λίτρα, litra). The most common was the logarikē litra (λογαρική λίτρα, "pound of account"), established by Constantine the Great in 309/310. It formed the basis of the Byzantine monetary system, with one litra of gold equivalent to 72 solidi. A hundred litrai were known as a kentēnarion (κεντηνάριον, "hundredweight"). Its weight seems to have decreased gradually from the original 324 grams to 319. Due to its association with gold, it was also known as the chrysaphikē litra (χρυσαφική λίτρα, "gold pound") or thalassia litra (θαλάσσια λίτρα, "maritime pound"), but it could also be used as a measure of land, equalling a fortieth of the thalassios modios.20
The soualia litra was specifically used for weighing olive oil or wood, and corresponded to 4/5 of the logarikē, i.e. 256 g. Some outlying regions, especially in later times, adopted various local measures, based on Italian, Arab or Turkish measures. The most important of these was the argyrikē litra (αργυρική λίτρα, "silver pound") of 333 g, found in Trebizond and Cyprus, and probably of Arab origin.20
Since the Middle Ages, various pounds (livre) have been used in France. Since the 19th century, a livre has referred to the metric pound, 500g.
The livre esterlin was equivalent to about 367.1 grams (5,665 gr) and was used between the late 9th century and the mid-14th century.21
The livre métrique was set equal to the kilogram by the decree of 13 Brumaire an IX between 1800 and 1812. This was a form of official metric pound.21
Originally derived from the Roman libra, the definition varied throughout Germany in the Middle Ages and onward. The measures and weights of the Habsburg monarchy were reformed in 1761 by Empress Maria Theresia of Austria.22 The unusually heavy Habsburg (civil) pound of 16 ounces was later defined in terms of 560.012 grams. Bavarian reforms in 1809 and 1811 adopted essentially the same standard pound. In Prussia, a reform in 1816 defined a uniform civil pound in terms of the Prussian foot and distilled water, resulting in a Prussian pound of 467.711 grams.
Between 1803 and 1815 all German regions west of the River Rhine were French, organised in the departements: Roer, Sarre, Rhin-et-Moselle, and Mont-Tonnerre. As a result of the Congress of Vienna these became part of various German states. However, many of these regions retained the metric system and adopted a metric pound of precisely 500 grams. In 1854 the pound of 500 grams also became the official mass standard of the German Customs Union, but local pounds continued to co-exist with the Zollverein pound for some time in some German states. Nowadays, the term Pfund is still in common use and universally refers to a pound of 500 grams.
The Russian pound (Фунт, funt) is an obsolete Russian unit of measurement of mass. It is equal to 409.51718 grams.23 As of 1899 Russian pound was the basic unit of weight, all other units of weight were formed from it.
The Skålpund was a Scandinavian measurement that varied in weight between regions. From the 17th century onward, it was equal to 425.076 grams in Sweden but was abandoned in 1889 when Sweden switched to the metric system.
In Norway the same name was used for a weight of 498.1 grams. In Denmark it equalled 471 grams.
In the 19th century Denmark followed Germany's lead and redefined the pound as 500 grams.
A Jersey pound is an obsolete unit of mass used on the island of Jersey from the 14th century to the 19th century. It was equivalent to about 7,561 grains (490 grams). It may have been derived from the French livre poids de marc.24
The trone pound is one of a number of obsolete Scottish units of measurement. It was equivalent to between 21 and 28 avoirdupois ounces (about 600-800 grams).
In many countries upon the introduction of a metric system, the pound (or its translation) became an informal term for 500 grams,
The Dutch pond is an exception. It was officially redefined as 1 kilogram, with an ounce of 100 grams, but people seldom use it this way. In daily life pond is exclusively used for amounts of 500 grams, and to a lesser extent, ons for 100 grams.
Though not from the same linguistic origin, the Chinese jin (also known a "catty") has a modern definition of exactly 500 grams, divided into ten cun. Traditionally about 605 grams, the jin has been in use for more than two thousand years, serving the same purpose as "pound" for the common-use measure of weight.
Hundreds of older pounds were replaced in this way. Examples of the older pounds are one of around 459 to 460 grams in Spain, Portugal, and Latin America; one of 498.1 grams in Norway; and several different ones in what is now Germany.
Although the use of the pound as an informal term persists in these countries to a varying degree, scales and measuring devices are denominated only in grams and kilograms. A pound of product must be determined by weighing the product in grams as the use of the pound is not sanctioned for trade within the European Union.25
Smoothbore cannon and carronades are designated by the weight in imperial pounds of round solid iron shot of diameter to fit the barrel. A cannon that fires a six-pound ball, for example, is called a six-pounder. Standard sizes are 6, 12, 18, 24, 32 and 42 pounds; 68-pounders also exist, and other nonstandard weapons use the same scheme. See carronade.
- "unicode chart 2100-214F". character 2114 of the Unicode 6.0 and 5.0 standards. Unicode Consortium. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. 'pound'
- United States. National Bureau of Standards (1959). Research Highlights of the National Bureau of Standards. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards. p. 13. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
- National Bureau of Standards, Appendix 8; National Physical Laboratory, P H Bigg et al. : Re-determination of the values of the imperial standard pound and of its parliamentary copies in terms of the international kilogramme during the years 1960 and 1961; Sizes.com: pound avoirdupois.
- Quoted by Laws LJ in " EWHC 195 (Admin)". Retrieved 2006-08-12.
- The pound is often described as a unit of "weight", and the word "weight" can refer to either mass or force depending on context. Historically and in common parlance, "weight" refers to mass, but weight as used in modern physics is a force.
- Grains and drams, ounces and pounds, stones and tons. Personal notes.
- Skinner, F.G. (1952). "The English Yard and Pound Weight". Bulletin of the British Society for the History of Science 1 (7): 184–6. doi:10.1017/S0950563600000646.
- United States. National Bureau of Standards (1962). weights and measures. Taylor & Francis. pp. 22–24. GGKEY:4KXNZ63BNUF. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- Barbrow, L.E.; Judson, L.V. (1976). Weights and measures standards of the United States – A brief history.
- United States National Bureau of Standards. "Appendix C of NIST Handbook 44, Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices, General Tables of Units of Measurement". p. C-14.
- Zupko, Ronald Edward (1985-12-01). Dictionary of Weights and Measures for the British Isles: The Middle Ages to the 20th Century. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 0-87169-168-X.
- "Weights used for gold". Tax Free Gold. Retrieved 2011-01-14.
- "A brief history of the pound". The Dozenal Society of Great Britain. Retrieved 2011-01-14.
- United States National Bureau of Standards (1959-06-25). "Notices "Refinement of values for the yard and the pound"". Retrieved 2006-08-12.
- United States National Bureau of Standards. "Appendix C of NIST Handbook 44, Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices, General Tables of Units of Measurement". "In Great Britain, the Yard, the Avoirdupois Pound, the troy pound, and the Apothecaries pound are identical with the units of the same names used in the United States." (The introduction to this appendix makes it clear that the appendix is only for convenience and has no normative value: "In most of the other tables, only a limited number of decimal places are given, therefore making the tables better adopted to the average user.")
- Zupko, Ronald Edward (1977). British weights & measures: a history from antiquity to the seventeenth century. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 7. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- Frederick George Skinner (1967). Weights and measures: their ancient origins and their development in Great Britain up to A.D. 1855. H.M.S.O. p. 65. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- Chambers's encyclopaedia 14. Pergamon Press. 1967. p. 476. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
- Schilbach, Erich (1991). "Litra". In Kazhdan, Alexander P.. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford University Press. p. 1238. ISBN 0-19-504652-8.
- Sizes, Inc. (2001-03-16). "Pre-metric French units of mass livre and smaller". Retrieved 2006-08-12.
- Hille, K.C. (1831). "Medicinal-Gewicht". Magazin für Pharmacie und die dahin einschlagenden Wissenschaften (Heidelberg): p. 268.
- Cardarelli, F. (2004). Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights and Measures: Their SI Equivalences and Origins (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 122. ISBN 1-85233-682-X.
- Sizes, Inc. (2003-07-28). "Jersey pound". Retrieved 2006-08-12.
- The Council of the European Communities (2009-05-27). "Council Directive 80/181/EEC of 20 December 1979 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to Unit of measurement and on the repeal of Directive 71/354/EEC". Retrieved 2009-09-14.
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