Sikhism in Canada
|Nanaksar Gurdwara Gursikh (Sikh Temple), Edmonton, Alberta|
|Regions with significant populations|
|British Columbia · Ontario · Alberta|
Canadian Sikhs number 468,673 people and account for 1.4% of Canada's population.1 Canadian Sikhs are often credited for paving the path to Canada for all South Asian immigrants as well as for inadvertently creating the presence of Sikhism in the United States.2
Sikhs have been in Canada since at least 1887.citation needed One of the first Sikh soldiers arrived in Canada following Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. Sikhs were one of the few Asian immigrant communities who were loyal members of the British Empire. Sikhs found employment in laying the tracks of the Canadian Pacific Railway, in lumber mills and mines. Though they earned less than white workers, they made enough money to send to India and get relatives to immigrate to Canada. The first Sikh pioneers came to the Abbotsford area in 1905 and originally worked on farms and in the lumber industry.3
By 1906, there were 1500 Sikh workers living in Canada.citation needed However, due to the large numbers of Japanese and Chinese Canadians, white workers were enraged at these immigrants, but their ill-will went toward the Sikhs since they had a distinct appearance through their beards and turbans.
In 1907, Buckam Singh came to British Columbia from Punjab at the age of fourteen. Due to racism, all South Asians were known as Hindus, despite over 98% of immigrants being Sikh. 90% of these Sikhs lived in British Columbia. While Canadian politicians, missionaries, unions and the press did not want Asian labour,citation needed British Columbia industrialists were short of labour and thus Sikhs were able to get an early foothold at the turn of the 19th to 20th century in British Columbia. Of the nearly 5,000 East Indians in Canada by 1907, most of the Sikhs were retired British army veterans.4
To further racism against the Sikhs, Punjabis were accused of having a caste system, an idea that goes against the foundations of Sikhism; they were accused of being riddled with trachoma and of being unclean in general. To enforce these racist comments, a song called White Canada Forever was created. This all eventually led to a boat of Sikhs landing in Vancouver being sent to Victoria.citation needed Punjabis avoided being in the Anti-Oriental Riots of 1907 by staying indoors. Sikh racismclarification needed caused many troubles for the Canadian Government, as Punjabis were the most loyal soldiers that were British subjects from their Asian and African colonies. From 1907, enforcements were used to check immigration and prohibit Sikh employment. Due to these acts being illegal, all Indian immigration to Canada stopped. The Canadian Prime Minister, Sir Wilfred Laurier claimed that Indians were unsuited to live in Canadian climate. In a letter to the viceroy, The Earl of Minto, Sir Wilfred changed this opinion on the Sikhs and stated that the Chinese were the least adaptable to Canadian ways and that Sikhs, called Hindus due to racism, were the most adaptable. Nevertheless, 1072 Sikhs left for California in 1907. It was also in 1907, when the Khalsa Diwan society was organized in Vancouver with branches in Abbotsford, New Westminster, Fraser Mills, Duncan Coombs and Ocean Falls.
In 1908, Indians were then politely asked by the Canadian Government to temporarily leave Canada and settle British Honduras; as they had thought that the "Mexican" climate would better suit Indians. A Sikh delegate was sent to what is now Belize and stayed in the British colony for some time before returning, upon his return, he told not only Sikhs, but other Indian religious groups, to decline, as the conditions were not suitable for Punjabis, but rather South Indians. In 1908, 1710 Sikhs left British Columbia for California. The first plans to build a temple were made in 1908. After a property situated on a hill was acquired the settlers carried lumber from a local mill on their backs up a hill to construct a gurdwara.3
William Lyon Mackenzie King (not yet the Canadian Prime Minister) visited London and Calcutta to show the Canadian view on Indian immigration. As a result, the Indian Government stopped advertising facilities and employment opportunities in North America. This invoked the provisions of Emigration act of 1883 which stopped Sikhs from leaving Canada. The Canadian Government passed two laws, in one, an immigrant had to have 200 dollars, far more than the previous 20 dollars; the other authorized the Minister of the Interior to prohibit entry into Canada, unless they came from their birth-country by continuous journey and through tickets purchased before leaving the country of their birth or citizenship. These laws were directed at Punjabi's and their population, which stood over 5000 in 1911, dropped down to little over 25000.
The Immigration Act, 1910 came into scrutiny when a party of 39 Indians, Sikh majority, rode a Japanese vessel, the Panama Maru, and succeeded in obtaining habus corpus against the immigration departments order of deportation. The Canadian Government then passed a law that was to keep laborours and artisans, skilled and unskilled, out of Canada by preventing them from landing at any dock in British Columbia. As Canadian immigration became stricter, more Indians, Sikh majority, went South to the United States of America. The Gur Sikh Temple opened on February 26, 1911; Sikhs and non-Sikhs from across British Columbia attended the ceremony and a local newspaper reported on the event. It was the first Gurdwara in not only North America, but also the world outside of South Asia and has since become a Canadian historical landmark and symbol, the only Gurdwara to be a symbol and historical landmark outside of India. The Khalsa Diwan Society then built Gurdwaras in Vancouver and Victoria.5
Though the objects of the Khalsa Diwan Society were religious, educational and philanthropic, problems connected to immigration and racism loomed in its proceedings. Alongside the Sikh Diwan, other organizations opened to fight Immigration Authorities. The United India League operated in Vancouver and the Hindustani Association of the Pacific Coast opened in Portland, Oregon. Gurdwaras became storm centers of political activity. The Ghadar Party, was founded in America in 1913 by Sikhs who had fled to California from British Columbia due to Canadian immigration laws. Despite originally being directed at the racism of Sikhs in the Sacramento Valley and Sacramento itself, it eventually moved to British Columbia. Thousands of Ghadar journals were published with some even being sent to India.
In 1914, Buckam Singh moved to Toronto. Also in 1914, from Sarhali, Amritsar, was a well-to-do businessman in Singapore who was aware of the problems that Punjabis were having in getting to Canada due to exclusion laws. He initially wanted to circumvent these laws by hiring a boat to sail from Calcutta to Vancouver. His aim was to help his compatriots whose journeys to Canada had been blocked. In order to achieve his goal, Gurdit Singh purchased the Komagata Maru, a Japanese vessel. Gurdit Singh carried 340 Sikhs, 24 Muslims, and 12 Hindus in his boat to Canada.
When the ship arrived at Canada, it was not allowed to dock. The Conservative Premier of British Columbia, Richard McBride, gave a categorical statement that the passengers would not be allowed to disembark. Meanwhile a "Shore Committee" had been formed with Hussain Rahim and Sohan Lal Pathak involved. Protest meetings were held in Canada and the USA. At one, held in Dominion Hall, Vancouver, it was resolved that if the passengers were not allowed off, Indo-Canadians should follow them back to India to start a rebellion (or Ghadar). The shore Committee raised $22,000 dollars as an instalment on chartering the ship. They also launched a test case legal battle in the name of Munshi Singh, one of the passengers. On July 7, the full bench of the Supreme Court gave a unanimous judgement that under new Orders-In-Council, it had no authority to interfere with the decisions of the Department of Immigration and Colonization. The Japanese Captain was relieved of duty by the angry passengers, but the Canadian government ordered the harbour tug, Sea Lion to push the ship out on its homeward journey. On July 19, the angry passengers mounted an attack. Next day the Vancouver newspaper The Sun reported: "Howling masses of Hindus showered policemen with lumps of coal and bricks... it was like standing underneath a coal chute".
The Komagata Maru arrived in Calcutta, India on September 26. Upon entry into the harbour, the ship was forced to stop by a British gunboat, and the passengers were placed under guard. The ship was then diverted approximately 17 miles to Budge Budge, where the British intended to put them on a train bound for Punjab. The passengers wanted to stay in Calcutta, and marched on the city, but were forced to return to Budge Budge and reboard the ship. The passengers protested, some refusing to re-board, and the police opened fire, killing 20 and wounding nine others. This incident became known as the Budge Budge Riot. Gurdit Singh managed to escape and lived in hiding until 1922. He was urged by Mohandas Gandhi to give himself up as a true patriot. He was imprisoned for five years.
Buckam Singh enlisted with the Canadian Expeditionary Force in the spring of 1915.6 Buckam Singh was one of the earliest known Sikhs living in Ontario at the time as well as one of only 9 Sikhs known to have served with Canadian troops in World War I. Private Buckam Singh served with the 20th Canadian Infantry Battalion in the battlefields of Flanders during 1916. Here, Buckam Singh was wounded twice in battle and later received treatment at a hospital run by one of Canada's most famous soldier poets the Doctor Lt. Colonel John McCrae.
While recovering from his wounds in England, Private Buckam Singh contracted tuberculosis and spent his final days in a Kitchener, Ontario military hospital, dying at age 25 in 1919. His grave in Kitchener is the only known WWI Sikh Canadian soldier’s grave in Canada. Despite being forgotten for ninety years and never getting to see his family again, Buckam Singh is now being celebrated as not only a Sikh hero, but a Canadian hero.7
Due to immigration restrictions, South Asians were not able to bring over their relatives from India over to Canada. Therefore, they went to means illegal to bring them to Canada. This was through the Washington-British Columbia border. When the Canadian Government became aware of the happenings along the borderline, they tightened immigration regulations and South Asian men who stayed even three days longer outside of Canada were denied entrance for violating the three-year limit. In 1937, a controversy surfaced with there being almost three-hundred illegal South Asian immigrants in BC. The case was investigated by the RCMP who had eventually solved the case. The Canadian government, however, decided to take this as an opportunity to negotiate with India and refused to deport illegal Sikh immigrants. In fact, the Canadian government pushed the Sikhs into gaining residency in Canada. During the 1940s, South Asians in Canada began to establish their livelihoods despite deep social and economic disturbances. Unemployment was common and the average British Columbian's wage had dropped over 20 percent. White employers were willing to accept Asian workers, this produced insecurities amongst the mainstream community of British Columbia. The result of this was a British Columbia minimum wage law, a law that was ultimately flawed. 25 percent of the employees would be paid 25 percent less and these were invariably Asians. South Asians continued to live under one roof and in extensive family's, this support helped them during the Depression period.8
In 1943, a twelve man delegation including members of the Khalsa Diwan Society presented the case of South Asian voting rights to Premier Hart. They said that without the ability to vote, in Canada they were nothing more than second class citizens. The Premier then made it so that South Asians in British Columbia that had fought in World War II would be granted voting rights, this law was passed in 1945. By 1947, all South Asians had the right to vote due to the Sikh Khalsa Diwan Society. In 1944, the Canadian Census showed there to be 1756 Canadian Sikhs with 98% of them living in British Columbia, the initial major port of immigration for Canadian Sikhs.9
It was in the 1950s that major immigration to Ontario would start to occur. The celebration of the birth of Guru Nanak was first celebrated in 1954 after a group of Sikhs from England arrived due to the liberalization of the laws caused due to the acts of the Khalsa Diwan Society. The construction of many gurdwara's had an immense effect on the Sikh population in Ontario.10 Following the founding of the East Indian Welfare Association by Sikhs, the first ever Sikh was elected to a city council in Mission, B.C. It was reported the following year for there to be 2148 Sikhs in Canada.11
In the 1960s and 1970s, tens of thousands of skilled Sikhs, some highly educated, settled across Canada, especially in the urban corridor from Toronto to Windsor. As their numbers grew, Sikhs established temporary gurdwaras in every major city eastward to Montréal, with the first Gurdwara in Eastern Canada being made in 1965. These were followed in many instances by permanent gurdwaras and Sikh centres. Most cities now have several gurdwaras, each reflecting slightly different religious views, social or political opinions. Through them Sikhs now have access to a full set of public observances. Central among these are Sunday prayer services, and in many communities the prayers are followed by langar (a free meal) provided by members of the sangat (governing council of holy men) and the congregation. The Khalsa Diwan Society grew to a much larger amount during the immigration boom of this time period. Near the end of the decade in 1979, the Canadian Sikhs, now more racially diverse, celebrated the 500th birthday of Guru Amar Das to mark the start of the annual Nagar Kirtan's which would occur in Canada ever year following. To celebrate the centennial birthday of the Guru, the Khalsa Diwan Society would purchase an adjoined building which would include a school, museum, daycare and Gurdwara and name it after Guru Amar Das. In the early 1980s, the Khalsa Diwan Society would grow slightly more and build a sports complex. Canada would also have its first officially registered Sikh organization, the Federation of Sikh Societies of Canada in the early 1980s. In the months prior to Operation Blue Star, Sikh seats would be granted to the University of British Columbia and the University of Toronto. The launching of Operation Bluestar would enrage many Canadian Sikhs.1112
Many Sikhs also came to Canada after the attack on the Golden Temple, the holiest shrine of Sikhs, by the Indian Government, and the following Anti-Sikh riots in 1984 in search for a new life and to escape persecution by the Indian Government. This attack caused hatred between the majority Sikh population and the minority Hindu population, with extremists "...threatening to kill thousand of Hindus by a number of means. Sikhs started asking for Independent nation called Khalistan. They would sometimes be met by opposition by Hindus and went generally unnoticed by the Canadian Government."1314 Ujjal Dosanjh, a moderate Sikh, spoke against Sikh extremist and faced a "reign of terror".15
In Vancouver, many Sikh protests had occurred. Two Sikhs had entered the Indian Consulate in Vancouver and with two swords smashed all pictures of Indira Gandhi. Later on in the week, Sikh protestors would arrive in numbers amassing more than hundreds and block the entrance to the consulate, forced it to close, burned the Indian National Flag as well as an effigy of Indira Gandhi. They would spend the day chanting "Down With Gandhi" and "Gandhi is a Murderer" until the consulate agreed to relay their demands to the Indian Government. Following their disperstion, the Sikhs spent the rest of the day mourning for Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale.16
Following the closure at the Vancouver Consulate, a Sikh Youth had angrily damaged the Toronto Consulate.17 Following, 700 Sikhs protested in front of the Toronto Consulate much like what had happened at the Vancouver Consulate. At the Toronto Consulate, Sikhs had thrown shoes at caricatures of Indira Gandhi as well as burning the Indian National Flag. The act of unity also sparked up unification between Canadian Muslims and Sikhs, with participants from each faith attending each other's rallies against the Indian Government. Toronto Metropolitan Police Officers were recorded as saying lines akin to sayings that the unity brought in Canada by the Anti-Sikh Pogroms was miraculous.18 2500 Sikhs had marched in the city of Calgary following the march at the Toronto Consulate.19
Air India Flight 182 was an Air India flight operating on the Montréal-London-Delhi-Bombay route. On 23 June 1985, the airplane operating on the route was blown up in midair by a bomb in the coast of Ireland. In all, 329 people perished, among them 280 Canadian nationals, mostly of Indian birth or descent origin, and 22 Indian nationals. The attack was considered the most dangerous terrorist attack ever until the September 11 attacks happened.20
The main suspects in the bombing were the members of a Sikh separatist group called the Babbar Khalsa and other related groups who were at the time agitating for a separate Sikh state called Khalistan in Punjab, India. In September 2007, the Canadian commission investigated reports, initially disclosed in the Indian investigative news magazine Tehelka21 that an hitherto unnamed person, Lakhbir Singh Brar Rode had masterminded the explosions.
In 2002, the Gur Sikh Temple was designated a national historic landmark by prime minister Jean Chrétien on July 26, 2002. It is the only gurdwara declared a national historic landmark outside of South Asia.5 In 2007 the temple was completely renovated and reopened. In 2011, the Gur Sikh Temple in Abbotsford celebrated its one hundredth birthday. To celebrate, the Government of Canada is funding the building of a museum dedicated to Canadian Sikhism. During the anniversary celebration, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper gave a speech to the Punjabi Community as to how the Gur Sikh Temple is a shrine to all immigrants into Canada, not just Sikh ones. 2011 was declared the Centennial year for Canadian Sikhs.5
In 2005, it was announced that the Indian revolutionary Balwant Singh Rajoana would be hanged under the death penalty for hanging for the murder of Indian Chief Minister Beant Singh at March 31 in Patiala. Beant Singh had killed thousands and cremated of young Sikh citizens, following Operation Bluestar which had inadvertently caused the rise of militancy in Punjab, under the proclamation that they were all extremists. Due to his assassination of Beant Singh, Rajoana is considered a hero amongst the Sikh youth in Canada who state that upon death he will become a martyr. The announcement angered many Sikhs across the world, many of these angered Sikhs were both Punjabi and converted from Canada, spurring civil unrest amongst Canadian Sikhs. The World Sikh Organization of Canada had called on the United Nations to try and make India abolish the death penalty and save Rajoana from death.22
Upon the announcement, many Canadian Sikhs, no matter their race, took up Nishan Sahib and began to protest against the Indian government and against the execution of Rajoana in the city of Vancouver. Other protests happened worldwide in the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, New Zealand and even India itself. Following the release of Kishori Lal, a murderer who had decapitated three innocent Sikhs with a chopper knife, the announcement has led Canadian Sikhs to believe that the Indian government is targeting Sikh peoples.23 In Canada, a large protest in Edmonton took place on March 25, six days prior to the pending execution.24 A day prior to the pending execution, 5000 Sikhs walked in front of Parliament Hill in Ottawa Canada. The same day the announcement was made that Rajoana's hanging would be stayed.25
The protests had gained mixed reactions, with a majority of citizens not supporting the protests of the Sikhs, seeing them as people with an unjust cause.26 Many members of the Canadian Parliament supported the Sikh rallies and their protests against the death penalty in India. These politicians included, but were not limited to, Justin Trudeau, Parm Gill, Jasbir Sandhu, Wayne Marston, Don Davies, Kirsty Duncan and Jim Karygiannis.27 Around this time, a group of Skinheads called "Blood and Honour" would attack two Sikh radicals in Edmonton.28
To celebrate the 2012 celebration Vaisakhi, a Sikh Cadet Corps was formed by the Canadian military.29 Whilst happening on April 13 in 2012, Vaisakhi was celebrated in Vancouver on April 14. The Vancouver Sun made their estimation of the Metro Vancouver Sikh population to be at 200,000 during an article about the 2012 Vaisakhi.30 The Vancouver Vaisakhi ended up attracting thousands of people as well as various politicians including BC Premier Christy Clark.31 At the April 21st Surrey Vaisakhi, the Sikh peoples demonstrated support for Rajoana through various posters, with large banners calling India the worlds largest "Demoncracy". The response to the support was positive.32
In May 2012, the classic Victoria Gurdwara, which was once broken down, but later rebuilt, would experience its one hundredth year anniversary. It was the second Gurdwara to celebrate one hundred years in Canada after the Gur Sikh Temple in the Sikh's Centennial Year. The Gurdwara houses over 3000 people per month.34 It was then announced that Sikhs would be allowed to wear kirpans in Toronto courthouses.35 In June, a Khalsa School in Brampton would be vandalized by racists who would put up signs of the Klu Klux Klan and with swastikas.28
NDP Party Leader Thomas Mulcair would once again raise ire and tensions when he would bring up the 1984 Anti-Sikh Riots. Mulcair would demand that a full investigation be put into the riots and those harmed be compensated.36 Soon after this statement, Neo-Nazi gunman Wade Michael Page would commence a shooting at a Sikh Temple in Wisconsin, America, which would be described as a domestic terrorism act. Despite the fact that the shooting occurred outside of Canada, Canadian Sikhs would take full responsibility to spread the message of Sikhism, explain the religion, honour the dead and wounded as well as give their reactions to the shootings.37
The Indian Overseas Congress would request to the Akal Takht that all Khalistan symbols prevailing in Canadian Gurdwara's be removed. They would go on to claim Pakistan funding Canadian efforts relating Khalistan and that Canadian politicians of Sikh heritage were turning militant,38 a claim that would immediately be denied.39 Stephen Harper is pushing back at suggestions that Ottawa needs to do more about Sikh separatist activity in Canada, saying his government already keeps a sharp lookout for terrorist threats and that merely advocating for a Khalistan homeland in the Punjab is not a crime. He said violence and terrorism can’t be confused with the right of Canadians to hold and promote their political views.40
Following, on CKNW's Philip Till Show would feature Dave Foran, a man who would demand Canadian Sikhs to lose their religious aspects, namely turbans, beards, clothes and "waddling" while walking, claiming the features to make "real" Canadians "sick".28 Soon after, the Friends of the Sikh Cadet Corps would run into issues with the 3300 British Columbian Royal Army Cadet, over their choice of name. The resulting turmoil would put months and months of planning into disarray.41
The Sikhs of Canada would once again take solidarity, much like they had done with the Rajoana situation, to support Daljit Singh Bittu and Kulbir Singh Barapind. The two had previously been arrested and abused on false charges, resulting in their most recent arrest to raise the ire of the Canadian Sikhs, who would go on to trash the policing forces in Punjab.42
Sikhs have made significant contribution to the Canadian economy in terms their professional and business advances. The Sikh community is represented in all professional fields; medical, legal, technological, academic.
Since 2009, Sikh members of the Canadian Forces (CF) have attended the annual Sikh Remembrance Day service which is held at the Mount Hope Cemetery in Kitchener, Ontario. This cemetery holds the only military grave in Canada belonging to a Sikh soldier, Private Buckham Singh who fought in World War I. In 2012, NCdt Tejvinder Toor, OCdt Saajandeep Sarai & OCdt Sarabjot Anand represented Royal Military College of Canada at the event in uniform.43
Various Nagar Kirtan celebrations happen in Canada, with most starting in British Columbia. In British Columbia, various places celebrate the Nagar Kirtan, though it is mainly celebrated in the cities of Vancouver, British Columbia and Surrey. In Vancouver, the Nagar Kirtan, is used to celebrate the Visakhi and the birth of Khalsa. Various Canadian Sikhs, of various ethnic origins, are present in the parade, which usually happens on Easter Weekend. In Abbotsford, the celebration happens on Labour Day Weekend and is commemorated in the celebration of the Parkash Divas of the Guru Granth Sahib Ji. The parade in Abbotsford takes place near the Kalgidar Durbar.
Visakhi celebrations happen in both British Columbia and Ontario, with many including a Nagar Kirtan parade. In Ontario, the Visakhi celebrations are reported to get bigger and bigger in terms of festivities and attending populace every year. Many Sikh academies and institutes also participate in the Ontario parades, such as the Akal Academy Brampton. While the Nagar Kirtan in the Ontario Visakhi celebration starts at the Malton Gurudwara and ends at the Sikh Spiritual Center, festivities go on until the Rexdale Gurudwara is reached.44
Due to Punjabi being the native language of the Sikh faith, it is spoken commonly throughout both converts and Indo-Canadians. Due to the large population of Sikh peoples in the city of Surrey, the Punjabi language is available as an educational course in the fifth grade using the British Columbia Punjabi Language Curriculum. In specific schools in the city of Abbotsford, the Punjabi language too is available as a course that can be taken following the fifth grade in elementary school levels.4546 For Abbotsford, however, when the curriculum was suggested to a more mainstream stray of schools, controversy was brought up, despite Punjabi being Abbotsford's second largest language.47 Many comments brought up were those who stated that only English and French should be taught in the district and that the costs to parents would be high, these comments were believed to be racially driven due to other secondary languages being taught for free in the district.48
Various controversies have arisen involving the sacred Sikh dagger, the Kirpan. Most of these cases have taken place in the Canadian province of Quebec where the Sikh religion is incredibly minor to the dominant Abrahamic faiths, compared to other Canadian provinces.
In February 2011, the Quebec National Assembly banned religious daggers, of which the kirpan was included. Upon the announcement, Canadian Sikh Liberal MP Navdeep Bains revealed his surprise and anger as he had worn the kirpan to the Supreme Court of Canada and the United States Congress without any trouble. The ban sparked a small debate amongst the Canadian Legislatures and news programs as well as backlash from the World Sikh Organization.49 Following this was a vote that the kirpan be banned from all parliamentary buildings including the Canadian House of Commons. The vote happened in favour of the kirpan, despite fierce opposition from the Bloc Québécois.50
In the 2006 Supreme Court of Canada decision of Multani v. Commission scolaire Marguerite‑Bourgeoys the court held that the banning of the kirpan in a school environment offended Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, nor could the limitation be upheld under s. 1 of the Charter, as per R. v. Oakes. The issue started when a 12-year-old schoolboy dropped a 20 cm (8-inch) long kirpan in school. School staff and parents were very concerned, and the student was required to attend school under police supervision until the court decision51 was reached. In September 2008, Montreal police announced that a 13-year-old student would be charged after he allegedly threatened another student with his kirpan. However, while he was declared guilty of threatening his schoolmates, he was granted an absolute discharge for the crime on April 15, 2009.52
The World Sikh Organization representative Jasbeer Singh, who had involvement in the Multani Kirpan case, represented the WSO who had called on the Calgary Telus Convention Center for an apology on another kirpan case. In the Calgary stadium, a Gurdas Mann concert had to be shut down after Sikh ticket holders had refused to remove their kirpans. Jasbeer was reportedly furious due to the case having occurred after it was proven that the kirpan was allowed to legally be worn in public areas due to the Multani v. Commission scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys case. Concert promoter Nirmal Dhaliwal revealed his intent on suing the center due to the lack of revenue brought by the case.53
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police had gained infamy and notoriety when they had refused to let turbaned Canadian Sikh officers join their service. In doing so they had indefinitely banned all RCMP officers from wearing a turban, requiring them to wear the standard and traditional RCMP headdress. The ban was put on by Herman Bittner who maintained that he was preserving history rather than discriminating. The ban was lifted in the year of 1990 and turbaned Sikh officers were permitted to join the RCMP.54
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sikhism in Canada|
- Khushwant Singh's A History of the Sikhs Volume 2
- Baker, Rochelle (DECEMBER 13, 2010). "Abbotsford's Gur Sikh Temple celebrates 100 years". Abbotsford Times. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- Century of Struggle and Success The Sikh Canadian Experience 13 November 2006
- "Gur Sikh Temple | CanadianSikhHeritage.ca". Retrieved 7 April 2011.
- "Private Bukan Singh". Veterans Affairs Canada Virtual Memorial. 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- "Buckam Singh". The Sikh Museum. 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
- Mohindra, Rimple (Saturday, June 4, 2011). "Indo-Canadians: The Depression & Immigration Issue". Abbotsford News (British Columbia, Abbotsford & Greater Vancouver Area).
- "South Asian voting rights granted in Canada due to Sikh demands". Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "Sikh arrival in Ontario". Retrieved 5 February 2012.
- "Sikhism". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
- "Sikh extremism spread fast in Canada". expressindia.com. 23 May 2007. Retrieved 2009-05-31.
- "Sikh extremism in Canada mushroomed very quickly". rediff.com. 23 May 2007. Retrieved 2009-05-31.
- Brown, Jim (22 November 2007). "'The reign of terror is still there'". Toronto: Toronto Star. Retrieved 2008-11-14.
- Operation Blue Star 1984 Golden Temple Attack Sikhs
- Operation Blue Star 1984 Golden Temple Attack Sikhs
- Operation Blue Star 1984 Golden Temple Attack Sikhs
- In Depth: Air India - The Victims, CBC News Online, 16 March 2005
- "Free. Fair. Fearless". Tehelka. Retrieved 2010-01-11.
- Worldwide Sikh Diaspora approach UN Human Rights Commission regarding proposed hanging of Sikh political prisioner in India | Sikh Siyasat News (in English)
- Support Bhai Balwant Singh Rajoana: Canada - Edmonton Protest 25 March 2012
- Canadian Sikhs show solidarity with Rajoana - Hindustan Times
- The Canadian Sikh Community Will Not Be Marginalized by Milewski and Kay – Global Sikh News
- CBC News. 28 March 2012 http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/story/2012/03/28/pol-sikh-parliament-hill-milewski.html
|url=missing title (help).
- Sikh Cadets win their colours
- Todd: A Vaisakhi primer on Hindu philosophical beliefs
- Photos: Vancouver Vaisakhi parade, minus the politicians | Vancouver, Canada | Straight.com
- Indo-Canadian Voice | ‘Surrey Vaisakhi Parade to demonstrate support for Rajoana’
- sikhchic.com | The Art and Culture of the Diaspora | How Three Sikh-Canadian Comics Found Global Fame
- Temple is hub of Sikh community
- Rush, Curtis (16 May 2012). "Kirpan, Sikh ceremonial dagger, now allowed in Toronto courthouses". The Star (Toronto).
- Chase, Steven (November 8, 2012). "On Sikh separatism, Harper in India defends freedom of expression". The Globe and Mail.
- Royal Military College of Canada Cadets on Remembrance Day 2012
- Ontario Sikhs take to the streets. | SikhNet
- School District No. 36 (Surrey) - Punjabi Language Program
- ABC Diversity Blog » 2012 » January
- Abbotsford News - Abbotsford school district considers expansion of Punjabi classes
- Article18: Canada - Sikhs Upset After Quebec National Assembly Bans Religious Daggers; Controversy Reignites Multiculturalism Debate - Religious Liberty - ReligiousLiberty.TV ...
- "Search". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). 3 June 2011.
- "Bulletin of March 3, 2006" (in French). Supreme Court of Canada / Cour Suprême du Canada. March 3, 2006.
- "Sikh boy guilty of assault with hairpin". CBC News. April 15, 2009. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
- http://www.owensoundsuntimes.com/ArticleDisplay.aspx?e=1685963&auth=SUN%20MEDIA&archive=true. Missing or empty
- CBC News http://archives.cbc.ca/politics/rights_freedoms/clips/3302/
|url=missing title (help).