Socialist Workers Party (UK)
|Socialist Workers Party|
|International Secretary||Alex Callinicos|
|National Secretary||Charlie Kimber|
|Founded||Socialist Review Group (1950)
International Socialists (1962)
Socialist Workers Party (1977)
|Headquarters||London, SW8 2WD United Kingdom|
Various pamphlets and books (through its publishing house, Bookmarks)
Rank-and-file newspapers such as Post Worker
|National affiliation||Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition|
|International affiliation||International Socialist Tendency|
|European affiliation||European Anticapitalist Left|
|European Parliament group||None|
|Colours||Red, White, Black|
|Politics of the United Kingdom
The Socialist Workers Party (SWP) is a far-left party in Britain. Founded as the Socialist Review Group by supporters of Tony Cliff in 1950, it became the International Socialists in 1962 and the SWP in 1977.1 The party considers itself to be Trotskyist, and Cliff and his followers criticized the former USSR, and its satellites, calling them "state capitalist", rather than socialist countries.
Over the decades, the SWP has used a number of 'fronts', such as the Anti-Nazi League in the late 1970s2 and from 2001, the Stop the War Coalition. It also formed an alliance with George Galloway and Respect; this alignment's eventual dissolution in 2007 caused an internal crisis in the SWP, as did rape allegations against a leading (former) member of the party which emerged publicly at the beginning of 2013.3
On the international level, the SWP is part of the International Socialist Tendency.
- 1 History
- 1.1 The Socialist Review Group
- 1.2 International Socialist period
- 1.3 Labour in power, the SWP formed
- 1.4 Anti-Nazi League and Rock against Racism
- 1.5 The "downturn"
- 1.6 The 1990s
- 1.7 Involvement with other groups
- 1.8 Incidents and Central Committee resignations
- 1.9 Internal crisis in 2013 over allegations of rape
- 2 Leadership
- 3 Theory
- 4 Publications
- 5 Notable members
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The Socialist Review Group
The origins of the SWP lie in the formation of the Socialist Review Group (SRG) which held its founding conference in 1950.4 The group, initially of only 8 members5 was formed around Tony Cliff's analysis of Russia as a bureaucratic state capitalist regime and were expelled from the Revolutionary Communist Party. Three documents formed the theoretical basis of the group: The Nature of Stalinist Russia,6 The Class Nature of the People's Democracies7 and Marxism and the Theory of Bureaucratic Collectivism.89
The tiny size of the group meant that they adopted 'entryism' as a means of working in the Labour Party10 in order to reach an audience and recruit.4 Of particular importance was the Labour League of Youth. Of the 33 members at the first recorded meeting, 19 were in the LLY.5
Through campaigning within the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and the Young Socialists, a new Labour Party youth movement, the Socialist Review Group was able to recruit among a new generation of activists and by 1964 had a membership of 200.4 In 1959, the first edition of Cliff's book on Rosa Luxemburg was published. In this Cliff asserts:
"Rosa Luxemburg's conception of the structure of the revolutionary organisation — that they should be built from below up, on a consistently democratic basis — fits the needs of the workers' movement in the advanced countries much more closely than Lenin;'s conception of 1902—4 which was copied and given an added bureaucratic twist by Stalinists the world over."11
Cliff wrote in 1960 that Trotsky's insight in 1904 about Lenin's substitutionism, was a strong warning of the serious flaws "inherent in Lenin’s conception of party organisation" sustained by events since 1917.12
International Socialist period
|Part of the Politics series|
The paper Industrial Worker was created in 1961, and was quickly renamed Labour Worker before evolving into Socialist Worker. Socialist Review was reduced in size and then scrapped.13 The Socialist Review Group became the International Socialism Group (IS) at the end of 1962.5
With the Labour Party in power, and many Labour members becoming disillusioned, IS started doing more work that was external to the Labour Party; it ceased to practice 'entryism' as a tactic around 1965.10 After 1967, few IS members were active in that party. In 1965, an article in Labour Worker said "Obviously Marxists should take those positions which give access to the direct workers’ organisations. But in the wards and GMCs the practice of buying the right to discuss politics by over-fulfilling the canvassing norms, should cease or be reduced to the minimum."4
It marked a turn to more of a focus on work in the trade unions, and a key part of this process was the pamphlet published in 1966: Incomes policy, legislation and shop stewards, which opposed the Labour Party's incomes policy and discussed how it could be fought.14
In 1968 the group adopted Leninist 'Democratic centralism' as an organisational practice.10 This period saw the IS heavily involved in the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign and large numbers of student struggles from which it recruited.15 As a result the IS grew from 400 to 1,000 members16 but also suffered many splits.17 According to group historian Ian Birchall, "IS’s position was always one of unconditional support for the IRA in the struggle against imperialism".18 However, Socialist Worker opposed the slogan 'Troops Out!' on the grounds that British troops would protect the nationalist population:
‘The breathing space provided by the presence of British troops is short but vital. Those who call for the immediate withdrawal of the troops before the men behind the barricades can defend themselves are inviting a pogrom which will hit first and hardest at socialists.’19
With hindsight, Tony Cliff concluded that the years 1970-74 had been "the best years of my life".20 That period saw the creation of rank and file newspapers and a general turn to industry, including setting up factory branches.18 During the 1972 miners strike, Socialist Worker was taken and sold by miners.21 Between March 1972 and March 1974, the membership of IS increased from 2,351 to 3,310, and also recruited a large number of manual workers into membership.21 Meanwhile, other much smaller far-left groups emerged as a result of their members being expelled from the IS. The Workers' Fight group joined as an open and allowed faction, but were expelled in 1971, and ultimately became the Alliance for Workers' Liberty.10 In 1975, what had been known as the Left Faction suffered the same fate, and became Workers Power.22 The Revolutionary Faction were expelled from the IS in 1973. The resulting Revolutionary Communist Group soon found itself with an internal opposition which eventually became the Revolutionary Communist Party23 led by Frank Furedi.
Labour in power, the SWP formed
In 1974 Labour returned to power and introduced the Social Contract which implemented a voluntary incomes policy, with the backing of many left wing union leaders such as Hugh Scanlon and Jack Jones. This period also saw an increase in the number of full-time union convenors, and these factors along with an increase in unemployment have been blamed by Tony Cliff and the SWP for a drastic fall in union militancy.24 In 1974 the IS was ambitious and optimistic25 expecting to double the number of its factory branches over the next year. In practice they declined swiftly from 38 in 1974 to only three or four by 1976. When the firefighters went on strike in 1977 against the Social Contract the IS was unable to deliver any significant solidarity. The national rank and file movement fell apart. In 1976 the SWP decided to stand in parliamentary by-elections but the results were very poor and the original idea of standing in 60 seats at the next election was dropped.26
In January 1977, IS was renamed the Socialist Workers Party. This decision was a result of the move to stand in elections along with a perception that: "IS’s ability to initiate activity, rather than simply join in movements launched by others, had never been greater. Industrially, there were more members than ever able to lead disputes in their own workplaces."1 According to Martin Shaw this occurred with no real discussion within the organisation27 and Jim Higgins has claimed "Its founding was for purely internal reasons, to give the members a sense of progress, the better to conceal the fact that there had actually been a retreat."28
Anti-Nazi League and Rock against Racism
A campaign in which the SWP had a significant role at this time was the Anti-Nazi League (ANL).29 viewed as a "front" for the organisation by commentators and historians.2 The National Front (NF) grew during the 1970s, and in the May 1976 local elections the party polled 15,340 votes in Leicester and large votes elsewhere. They were even more visible on the streets through graffiti, racist attacks and street protests. A key turning point came when, on 13 August 1977, thousands of anti-fascists, later joined by large numbers of local black youths, attempted to stop the NF from marching through Lewisham.
Following the perceived success of the 13 August mobilisation in Lewisham, the SWP launched the Anti Nazi League in the Autumn of 1977 with a series of celebrity-endorsed adverts published in the press. Although it was portrayed as a broad initiative supported by the SWP along with wide swathes of the Labour Left and figures from popular culture (singers, musicians, actors etc.), the ANL was seen by many on the left as a self-serving unilateral SWP initiative to seize the leadership of the Anti-Racist Movement and was regarded with suspicion by many Anti-Racist/Anti-Fascist activists. This was particularly true of many in the existing broad-based Anti-Fascist Committees (often with close connections to the local Labour and Trade Union Movement). The fact that local ANL groups were often launched as an SWP-led alternative to existing broad-based Anti-Fascist Committees increased the suspicions of non-SWP activists but a widespread desire not to display public divisions (and a fear of alienating the ANL's celebrity sponsors) meant that these divisions were kept fairly quiet. The ANL also received support from other Trotskyist groups, Anarchist groups and the Communist Party of Britain (who restrained their members and supporters from openly criticising the ANL).
In response to Eric Clapton's public support for Enoch Powell, Rock Against Racism was set up in close collaboration with the ANL, and a series of successful carnivals were organised. Among the bands involved with Rock Against Racism were The Clash (as seen in the film Rude Boy), The Buzzcocks, Steel Pulse, X-Ray Spex, The Ruts, Generation X and the Tom Robinson Band. By 1981 the NF had fragmented becoming far smaller, and the campaign was wound up.30
From 1978 Tony Cliff became convinced by some of his comrades that the period of rising militancy had come to an end3132 and a downturn had begun. Cliff wrote that: "The crisis in the organisation went on for about 3 years, 1976-79". By 1982 the SWP was refocused completely to a propagandist approach, with geographical branches as the main unit of the party, a focus on Marxist theory and an abandonment of perspective of building a rank and file movement. The rank and file organisations were wound down as was the women's organisation Women's Voice and the paper for ethnic minorities Flame. The closure of Women's Voice in 1982, reputedly because it tried to inject feminist thinking into SWP theoretical practice rather than gaining women members for the party,33 was a bitterly disputed action made by the leadership,34 a sharp debate taking place between those who believed the result would be to ignore the specificities of women's oppression, and those who believed that feminist theories were in danger of losing contact with the united interests of men and women workers.
During the 1984-85 miners' strike the SWP's propaganda concentrated on the need for solidarity and explaining why this was not happening. Cliff described the approach as one of concrete propaganda: "It had to answer the question 'What slogan fits the issue the workers are fighting over?"35
This change in outlook and methods was viewed by many on the left as being a retreat into sectarianism by the SWP36 but this change in methods is credited by the SWP as allowing it to survive a very hostile period with substantial numbers of party members.32 In contrast Murray Smith described it as "jumping from one campaign to the next and hostility towards the rest of the left."37
The early 1990s for many of the far-left was a period of demoralisation and disorientation due to the collapse of the Soviet Union. However, for the SWP this was seen as a vindication of their long held analysis that the Soviet Union was a 'state capitalist' society. They argued that "the transition from state capitalism to multinational capitalism is neither a step forward nor a step backwards, but a step sidewards. The change only involves a shift from one form of exploitation to another form for the working class as a whole."38
The SWP were involved in the campaign against the poll tax in England although it has been claimed they failed to intervene in Scotland.37 It was this period, that the Revolutionary Democratic Group were expelled and became in their words, "an external faction". The SWP was involved in the relaunch the ANL in 1992 in response to the growth of the British National Party and campaigned against the Criminal Justice Bill. A demonstration near the BNP headquarters in Welling in 1993 turned into a violent confrontation with the police, leading to criticism from Ken Livingstone, then a Labour MP and a supporter of the rival Anti-Racist Alliance (ARA). Livingstone argued that this kind of action was playing into the hands of the BNP. He said at the time: "'No one's discussing [the BNP's] policies. Now the question is the violence of the SWP, arguments between the police and the SWP about who is to blame."39
In 1997, despite being highly opposed to Tony Blair's policies, they called for a vote for the Labour Party, with the belief that there would rapidly be a crisis of expectations in Labour which would lead New Labour voters to question their allegiances and open up opportunities and space for organisation and activity to the left of Labour that are traditionally occupied by Labour when it is in opposition. John Rees wrote in July 1997: "In the mid-term the 'sado-monetarist' strategy followed by the Labour government will clash increasingly sharply with a working class movement which has drawn hope and confidence from its electoral victory over the Tories."40
Involvement with other groups
The SWP was involved with the Socialist Alliance in England and the Welsh Socialist Alliance. Its Scottish members joined the Scottish Socialist Party as the Socialist Worker Platform in May 2001.37 The SWP was accused of financial impropriety by Liz Davies41 and, by a former SA press officer, of "running" the Alliance into the ground.42
In the aftermath of 9/11 the SWP approached other groups, such as the Muslim Association of Britain and the Communist Party of Britain.43 and with them launched the Stop the War Coalition, although the SWP, "old hands" at controlling popular fronts according to the comedian and activist Mark Thomas,44 was the dominant organisation,45 The Coalition's aims were to oppose to the invasion of Afghanistan and subsequently Iraq and to campaign against attacks on Muslims. Lindsey German was elected as Convenor and John Rees and Chris Nineham were appointed as national officers, all leading SWP members at the time.46 The Coalition organised a demonstration on 15 February 2003 when around 750,000 people (according to the Police) or up to 2million (according to the organisers) marched through London.47
The SWP described the Iraqi insurgency as a "resistance" movement against military occupation48 and endorsed George Galloway's support of Hezbollah, who they described as "the resistance".4950 In addition, the Muslim Association of Britain was accused of being a conservative Islamist body5152 sharing only anti-western sentiments with groups like the SWP and Respect.53 Former Socialist Alliance and Stop the War activist and press officer Anna Chen saw Lindsey German's identification of left-wing "shibboleths" (gay rights),4754 which were considered to hinder the new alliance, as the party's equivalent of Labour's revision of 'Clause IV'.55 According to John Rentoul, the SWP and its allies, were not against the war at all, but in favour of Saddam Hussein winning.56 John Rees has said: "Socialists should unconditionally stand with the oppressed against the oppressor, even if the people who run the oppressed country are undemocratic and persecute minorities, like Saddam Hussein."57
In England and Wales around January 2004 the group began an involvement in Respect – The Unity Coalition,58 an electoral alliance with a single Member of Parliament, George Galloway, and a small number of councillors. The coalition between the SWP and Galloway's group finally collapsed in Autumn 2007 with both sides blaming the other for the split.59
After the schism, a faction led by the SWP formed the Left List (now called Left Alternative). In Scotland, the SWP existed as a platform of the Scottish Socialist Party but in August 2006, it decided to split from the SSP in order to pursue a new political grouping with Tommy Sheridan's Solidarity,60 founded a few months after Sheridan's successful defamation case, but before his eventual conviction for perjury in 2010. In that year, the SWP joined the Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition and stood five candidates in the general election.61
For several years from 2004, the jazz musician (and anti-Zionist activist) Gilad Atzmon performed at SWP events. Accused of being connected with an antisemite,6263 the party eventually severed their association with Atzmon.64
Incidents and Central Committee resignations
In January 2009, John Rees, Lindsey German and Chris Nineham resigned from the Central Committee at party conference65 before forming an oppositional Left Platform in the party66 in October 2009 with the support of 64 members.67 The faction agreed to disband after the party's January 2010 conference.68 Two members of the Left Platform were expelled over allegations of secret factionalising outside of the three-month period prior to conference (in which open factions are permitted).6970 The expulsions were contested at the conference of 2010 but a majority of the more than 500 delegates voted in favour of the expulsions which were then ratified.71 In February 2010, sixty former members of the Left Platform including John Rees, Lindsey German and Chris Nineham resigned from the SWP.72 In response to the financial crisis of 2007–2010, the SWP initiated the Right to Work campaign in June 2009.73
In October 2009, the SWP's then National Secretary Martin Smith was charged with assaulting a police officer at the Unite Against Fascism (UAF) demonstration against BNP leader Nick Griffin's appearance on the BBC's Question Time programme. Smith was found guilty of the assault at South Western Magistrates' Court, London, on 7 September 2010. He was sentenced to a 12-month community order, with 80 hours' unpaid work, and was fined £450 pending an appeal.74 (Smith was arrested again in July 2012 at a UAF demonstration against the EDL in Bristol.)75third-party source neededFollowing a UAF demonstration against the English Defence League (EDL) in Bolton on 20 March 2010, SWP Central Committee member Weyman Bennett was charged with conspiracy to incite violent disorder but the charge was dropped in November 2010.7677
On 22 May 2010, around 100 SWP members disrupted negotiations between Unite and British Airways inside the Acas building, much to the disapproval of both parties.78 The talks had to be abandoned.79 Martin Smith claimed on Channel 4 News that the actions of Willie Walsh, then BA chief executive, were far worse.80 In the 2010 general election the SWP joined the Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition; this alliance received 0.04% of the votes cast.81
In April 2011, Chris Bambery, one of the last two Central Committee members to have worked alongside Tony Cliff, and the organiser of the Right To Work campaign, resigned from the party arguing, in his resignation letter, that it was ridden with factionalism, that he had learned about the founding of RTW from 'Party Notes' and that the party has no credible strategy to fight the government's cuts agenda.82 Bambery's resignation was followed by 38 members in Scotland with the intention of forming a new Marxist grouping north of the border. 50 ex-members of the SWP formed the International Socialist Group (Scotland) shortly thereafter.83
Internal crisis in 2013 over allegations of rape
A Disputes Committee document was discussed at the party conference in January 2013 about allegations of sexual assault and rape made by a much younger female member against 'Comrade Delta', a senior party official who by then was no longer in his former post. Allegations about Delta's behaviour had been an issue for several years within the group,84 but no one had contacted the police.85
A transcript was leaked to the Socialist Unity website, and the party's perceived failure to adequately resolve the issue resulted in strong internal criticism.85 One member of the disputes committee86 had asserted that the party had "no faith in the bourgeois court system to deliver justice."85 Journalist Laurie Penny noted that the allegations were investigated and dismissed by friends of the accused, and that the alleged victim and her friends have been harassed by other party members,87 while journalist John Palmer, a one-time IS member, pointed to problems with the policy of 'democratic centralism' as it had been adopted by Tony Cliff,88 though Alex Callinicos defended the party's version of Leninism, and referred to the 'Delta' issue as "a difficult disciplinary case".89
In an official statement, the party's Central Committee, via Charlie Kimber, stated that the issue was an internal matter, insisting that "we strongly condemn" the release of the conference transcript and that "this case is closed".90 Richard Seymour, on his Lenin's Tomb blog, criticised the party's leadership.84 Along with another writer and (then) SWP member China Miéville and others, Seymour was involved with the internal opposition's blog, International Socialism, established in January 2013.91 According to Alex Callinicos: "the internal opposition are accountable to no one for these actions. They offer an unappetising lesson in what happens when power is exercised without responsibility."89The Guardian reported that a woman who complained about rape in the SWP claimed she was asked a number of offensive questions about her sexual past and drinking habits. Another article in The Guardian suggested that instead of actually dealing with the rape allegation, the SWP preferred to talk about its internal organisation, thereby protecting its leadership.92
A report by Shiv Malik and Nick Cohen published by The Guardian the following March revealed that further allegations of rape have been made internally against 'Delta' and another senior party member.93
A special conference was held on 10 March,93 in which Seymour and Miéville's faction was defeated, and the central committee insisted the report about the complaint against 'Delta', "that no rape had occurred", be accepted.94 Seymour, who later accused "the leadership" of "rigged debates and gerrymandered votes",95 announced his resignation,96 while the newly established International Socialist Network gained more than 100 now former SWP members.95
Julie Sherry, a member of the central committee responding to allegations of the party's sexism, has written: "We believe women cannot be free until capitalism is destroyed by a revolution led by women and men together."97 Sherry replaced a member of the central committee who disapproved of the handling of the case while her father was a member of the disputes committee who found the allegation of misconduct against 'Delta' "not proven".95 Owen Jones, whose own father was once a full-time organiser in Militant, speculated in January that "the era of the SWP and its kind is over."98
Subsequent to the publicity surrounding the SWP's response to this rape allegation, a number of critics on the left called those in leadership positions "rape apologists" - for instance, these allegations were publicly aired and were the basis of a walkout in protest against SWP candidates at the National Union of Students (NUS) meeting in April 2013.99 The Socialist Workers' Student Society has been active at many universities, but the SWSS suffered a serious decline in membership as the 'Comrade Delta' scandal unfolded.100
'Comrade Delta' himself was reported to have resigned from the SWP in July 2013.101
The leadership is formed by a central committee, and a national committee. Elections on a slate offers "previously agreed leaders to [the SWP's] members for ratification, rather than an open vote for leadership candidates"102 to the central committee are held at the national conference each January. As of 2013[update] the central committee members were: Weyman Bennett, Michael Bradley, Alex Callinicos, Joseph Choonara, Charlie Kimber, Amy Leather, Judith Orr, Julie Sherry and Mark L Thomas. Two trade union activists, whose names are withheld to protect them from their employers, were also elected.103
The national committee consists of 50 members elected annually at national conference. At least four party councils a year are to be arranged by the central committee. At these councils two delegates elected from each branch plus the national committee will be entitled to attend.104
Duncan Hallas, a founding member of the IS, predecessor of the SWP, wrote: "The founders of the group saw themselves as mainstream Trotskyists, differing on important questions from the dominant group in the International, but belonging to the same basic tendency."106 Here "the group" refers to the Socialist Review Group, forerunner of the SWP and "the International" to the Fourth International — the main Trotskyist grouping.
The SWP describes itself as a 'revolutionary socialist party' and considers itself to stand in the 'tradition' of Leon Trotsky. It also shares many of the political positions of other Trotskyist groups, a tradition rooted in Marxism and Leninism (see for example Tony Cliff, Marxism at the Millennium.107) In common with other Trotskyists the SWP defends the body of ideas codified by the first four Congresses of the Communist International and the founding Congress of the Fourth International of Leon Trotsky in 1938.
Its supporters often refer to their beliefs as 'socialism from below', a term which has been attributed to Hal Draper. This concept can also be traced back to the rules of the First International which stated: "the emancipation of the working classes must be conquered by the working classes themselves."108 They see this as distinguishing themselves from other socialist groups, particularly both from reformist parties such as the Labour Party (described as a 'capitalist workers' party'109) and from various forms of what they disparagingly term 'Stalinism'—forms of socialism usually associated with the former Soviet Bloc and the old Communist Parties. These are seen as advocating socialism from above. In contrast Cliff argued: "The heart of Marxism is that the emancipation of the working class is the act of the working class. The Communist Manifesto states: 'All previous historical movements were movements of minorities, or in the interest of minorities. The proletarian movement is the self-conscious, independent movement of the immense majority, in the interest of the immense majority.'"110 For more on this see Marxism at the Millennium (2000)111
The SWP also seeks to differentiate itself from other Trotskyist tendencies. Three key theories are at the centre of its difference from other Trotskyists: State Capitalism, Deflected Permanent Revolution and The Permanent Arms Economy (see below).
Unlike most Trotskyist organisations, the SWP does not have a formal programme (like the Fourth International's founding document, the Transitional Program), but an outline of the SWP's ideas called "Where We Stand"112 is published in each issue of Socialist Worker.
The SWP maintains an opposition to what it terms "substitutionist strategies". This is the idea that social forces other than the proletariat, which is for Marxists the potentially social revolutionary class due to its 'radical chains', may substitute for the proletariat in the struggle for a socialist society (see above). This idea led the founder of the SWP, Tony Cliff, to reject the idea that the USSR was a 'degenerated workers' state', the position held by other Trotskyists and derived from Leon Trotsky's analysis in the 1930s. Cliff argued that in fact the USSR and Eastern Europe used a form of capitalism which he referred to as 'bureaucratic state capitalist', and that later so did other countries ruled by what he termed Stalinist parties, such as China, Vietnam and Cuba. Cliff's approach to this idea was published in the 1948 article The Nature of Stalinist Russia113 as it was further advanced on in his 2000 publication Trotskyism after Trotsky where he discussed the decline of the USSR.
Other IS/SWP theoreticians such as Nigel Harris and Chris Harman would later extend and develop a distinct body of state capitalist analysis based on Cliff's initial work. This theory was summed up in the slogan "Neither Washington nor Moscow, but International Socialism". The slogan is said to have originally come from Max Shachtman's group, the Workers Party, in their paper 'Labor Action' and was only borrowed by the IS/SWP at a later date. This is seen as ironic because one of Cliff's concerns when first developing his idea of state capitalism was to differentiate his ideas from the idea of bureaucratic collectivism associated with Shachtman (see for example The theory of bureaucratic collectivism: A critique (1948).114) However, the formula also echoes the Fourth International's 1948 manifesto, Neither Wall Street nor the Kremlin. Cliff's version of the theory of state capitalism can be differentiated from those associated with other dissident Trotskyists and Marxists, such as C. L. R. James and Raya Dunayevskaya.
'Deflected Permanent Revolution'
As a Trotskyist tendency, the SRG/IS was faced with developing an explanation as to why and how a number of countries in the former colonial world had succeeded in overthrowing the rule of various imperial powers and forming states characterised by the SRG/IS as being bureaucratic state capitalist. In part, such an explanation was needed to understand why these colonial revolutions had not developed into uninterrupted or Permanent Revolutions, as predicted by Leon Trotsky in his theory of the same name. Taking Trotsky's theory as his starting point, Tony Cliff developed his own theory of 'deflected permanent revolution'. He argued that where a revolutionary working class did not exist, the intelligentsia could, in certain limited circumstances, take the leadership of the nation and lead a successful revolution in the direction of a state capitalist solution. The outcome of such a revolution would be deflected from the goal of a social revolution as envisaged in Trotsky's original work.
Cliff's essay "Permanent Revolution" was first published in International Socialism Journal, No. 12 Spring 1963,115 in response to the Cuban Revolution and largely took it and the earlier Chinese Revolution as its subject. However, the general concept of a deflected permanent revolution would be much exercised as a key analytical tool by IS theoreticians in the coming years. Significant in this respect is the work of Nigel Harris in relation to India and later of Mike Gonzalez on Cuba116 and Nicaragua. The theory has been given a central place in Cem Uzun's work Making the Turkish Revolution (2004).
The 'permanent arms economy'
State capitalism and deflected permanent revolution came to be seen as central to a distinct IS politics by the mid-1960s along with the theory of the 'permanent arms economy' (PAE) which sought to explain the long boom in the global economy after the Second World War. This boom was in contrast to the period after the First World war when a period of stagnation occurred.
The three theories taken together are often seen as being the hallmarks of the IS tradition, although this is contested by some former leaders of the IS, including Nigel Harris and Michael Kidron both of whom worked on the PAE and now repudiate it, and by some other Trotskyists outside the IS Tradition. The PAE, the most contested of the three theories, is also the only one that did not originate with Tony Cliff.
The PAE originated with a member of Max Shachtman's Workers' Party/Independent Socialist League named Ed Sard in 1944. Sard, writing as Walter J. Oakes, argued in Politics that the PAE was to be understood as allowing capitalism to achieve a level of stability by preventing the rate of profit from falling as spending on arms was unproductive and would not lead to the increase of the organic composition of capital. Later in 1951 in New International, this time writing as T. N. Vance, Sard argued that the PAE operated through its ability to apply Keynes' multiplier effect.117 Although briefly mentioned by Duncan Hallas in a Socialist Review of 1952 the theory was only introduced to the IS by Cliff in 1957.118
In his May 1957 article "Perspectives of the Permanent War Economy",119 Cliff offered the PAE to readers in a version derived from Sard's earlier essays but without reference to Keynes and using a Marxist theoretical framework. This was the only attempt to develop the idea, which it is suggested explains the long post war boom, until the publication of Mike Kidron's Western Capitalism Since the War120 in 1968. Kidron would further develop the theory in his Capitalism and Theory. Additional work was also contributed by Nigel Harris and later by Chris Harman. However it should also be noted that Mike Kidron was to repudiate the theory as early as the mid-1970s in his essay "Two Insights Don't Make a Theory"121 in International Socialism No. 100. This was followed by a rejoinder from Chris Harman ("Better a valid insight than a wrong theory").122
The SWP publishes a weekly newspaper Socialist Worker, a monthly magazine, Socialist Review, and a quarterly theoretical journal, International Socialism. It also publishes an international bulletin and a public bulletin Party Notes, various pamphlets and books (through its publishing house, Bookmarks) and rank-and-file newspapers such as Post Worker.123
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2014)|
- Alex Callinicos (political philosopher and current Director of the Centre for European Studies at King's College London)
- John Charlton (historian)
- Keith Flett (prolific letter writer to the British press, historian)
- Mike Gonzalez (historian)
- Michael Lavalette (Preston socialist councillor)
- John Molyneux (art historian)
- John Newsinger (historian)
- Dave Randall (musician, Faithless and Slovo)
- John Rose (sociologist and Jewish anti-Zionist activist)
- Chanie Rosenberg (artist and former teacher)
Former (including former members of the IS)
- Chris Bambery (journalist and activist)
- Ian Birchall (historian)
- Ian Brown (musician, the Stone Roses)
- Julie Burchill (journalist)
- Verity Burgmann (political scientist and labour historian)
- Garry Bushell (journalist)
- Chris Dean (journalist and musician)
- Terry Eagleton (literary critic)
- Neil Faulkner (archaeologist)
- Jim Fitzpatrick (politician)
- Lindsey German (convenor of the Stop the War Coalition)
- Alan Gibbons (children's author)
- Ian Gibson (politician)
- Nigel Harris (economist)
- Wendy Henry (former journalist and editor)
- Peter Hitchens (journalist)
- Hugh Kerr124 (former MEP)
- Oona King (politician)
- Rod Liddle (journalist)
- Alasdair MacIntyre (philosopher)
- Gus Macdonald (politician)
- Sean Matgamna (political activist)
- China Miéville, (science fiction author and legal theorist)
- Andrew Milner (literary critic, cultural theorist and Green campaigner)
- Stan Newens (politician)
- Seymour Papert (mathematician)
- Roger Protz (beer writer)
- John Rees72125126127128 (former National Secretary of Respect and the Left Alternative)
- Dave Renton (historian of fascism)
- Sheila Rowbotham (feminist writer)
- Andy Serkis (actor)
- Richard Seymour (writer and "Lenin's Tomb" blogger)
- Martin Shaw (political scientist)
- Clare Solomon (political activist)
- John Squire (musician, the Stone Roses)
- Mark Steel (comedian)
- Laurie Taylor (sociologist and broadcaster)
- Ben Watson (music writer)
- Frank Webster (sociologist)
- Samuel West (actor)
Deceased (including deceased former members)
- Tom Behan (historian)
- Raymond Challinor (labour historian)
- Tony Cliff (founding member, IS and SWP)
- Paul Foot (investigative journalist)
- Duncan Hallas
- Chris Harman (former editor of Socialist Worker)
- Jim Higgins
- Christopher Hitchens (journalist)
- Alistair Hulett (folk singer)
- Michael Kidron (writer and cartographer)
- Leon Kuhn (cartoonist)
- Peter Sedgwick (writer)
- Steven Wells (journalist)
- Harry Wicks (activist)
- David Widgery (physician)
- Ian Birchall: The Smallest Mass Party - "Part 3: Facing the crisis", SWP 1981.
- David Boothroyd The History of British Political Parties, London: Politicos, 2001, p.303
- Nick Cohen "Why 'leftists revolutionaries' are not the best feminists", The Observer 3 February 2013
- History of the International Socialists – "Part 1: From Theory to Practice", Ian H. Birchall, (originally published in) International Socialism 76 (1st series), March 1975
- Tony Cliff, A World to Win, Chapter 3, Bookmarks, 2000.
- The Nature of Stalinist Russia, RCP Internal Bulletin, 1948.
- Tony Cliff, "The Class Nature of the People's Democracies"
- "Marxism and the Theory of Bureaucratic Collectivism". Marxists.org. 2005-10-14. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
- Jim Higgins, More Years for the Locusts, Chapter 3, IS Group, 1997.
- Peter Barberis, John McHugh and Mike Tyldesley Encyclopedia of British and Irish Party Politics in Local Government: Parties, Groups and Movements of the Twentieth Century, New York & London: Pinter, 2002, p.166
- Tony Cliff Rosa Luxemburg, London, 1959, p.54 cited in John Callaghan The Far Left in British Politics, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987, p.95; "Rosa Luxemburg’s place in history", marxists.org
- Tony Cliff "Trotsky on substitutionism", reprint from International Socialism, first series, No.2, Autumn 1960 on marxists.org
- Jim Higgins, More Years for the Locusts, Chapter 7, IS Group, 1997.
- Tony Cliff & Colin Barker, Incomes policy, legislation and shop stewards, London 1966.
- David Boothroyd The History of British Political Parties, London: Politicos, 2001, p.302
- Tony Cliff, A World to Win, Chapter 4, Bookmarks, 2000.
- Ian Birchall History of the International Socialists – "Part 2: Towards a revolutionary party" (originally published in) International Socialism 77 (1st series), April 1975
- Socialist Worker, No. 137, 11 September 1969
- Tony Cliff, A World to Win, Bookmarks, London 2000, p. 124.
- Jim Higgins, More Years for the Locusts, Chapter 11, IS Group, 1997.
- John Sullivan As Soon As This Pub Closes: "Workers Power (the Class of ’75)", (2004), marxists.org
- Robert Jackson Alexander International Trotskyism, 1929-1985: A Documented Analysis of the Movement, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991, p.498
- Tony Cliff, A World to Win, Chapter 6, Bookmarks, 2000.
- Tony Cliff A World to Win, Bookmarks 2000, p. 132.
- Tony Cliff, A World to Win, Bookmarks 2000, p. 142.
- Martin Shaw: "From the International Socialists to the SWP", Socialist Register 1978.
- Jim Higgins, More Years for the Locusts, Chapter 14, IS Group, 1997.
- Vulliamy, Ed (2007-03-04). "Blood and glory". The Observer (London). Retrieved 2009-05-22.
- Dave Renton, "The Anti-Nazi League, 1977-81", on the website dkrenton.co.uk.
- Cliff, Chapter 7
- "The broad party, the revolutionary party and the united front". Pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
- Boothroyd The History of British Political Parties, p.303
- See Lindsey German Sex, Class and Socialism, Chapter 10 and Dave Isaacson "SWP and women: "Countless zigs and zags over women’s oppression", Weekly Worker, No.945, 17 January 2013
- Cliff, chapter 6
- see for example, "Where is the SWP going?" by Murray Smith of the Scottish Socialist Party
- "Where is the SWP going?". Pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
- Harman The Storm Breaks, ISJ 2:46
- Quoted by Jojo Moyes "Hard-left violence 'hurting anti-racist organisations'", The Independent, 15 November 1993
- "The Class Struggle Under New Labour". Pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
- "Executive wake-up call", Weekly Worker, 454, October 31, 2002
- Amanda Day "Hammer and Crescent", New Humanist, 119:1, January–February 2004
- Colin Schindler "The European Left and Its Trouble With Jews", New York Times, 27 October 2012
- Mark Thomas "Mark Thomas has had enough of the SWP", New Statesman, 19 May 2003
- Nick Cohen "The Left isn't listening", The Observer, 16 February 2003
- Peter Manson "Left Platform throws in the towel", Weekly Worker, 18 February 2010
- Nick Cohen "The lesson the left has never learnt", New Statesman, 21 July 2003. See also Mike Marqusee "Formations for the Next Left", Signs of the Time seminar, 10 July 2003 for the text of the speech cited by Cohen.
- Callinicos, Alex (21 August 2004). "Victory to the resistance?". Socialist Worker.
- George Galloway "Hizbollah is right to fight Zionist terror", Socialist Worker No,2011, 29 July 2006
- "Facts point to an unequal conflict in the Middle East". Socialist Worker. 29 July 2006.
- David Tate "Unnatural unions", guardian.co.uk, 7 April 2006
- "Muslims and socialists: With friends like these", The Economist, 8 February 2007
- Ghaffar Hussain "An unlikely alliance", guardian.co.uk, 30 September 2008
- "Marxism 2003 - Rees lays it on the line", Weekly Worker, 488, 10 July 2003
- Anna Chen "A Bad Case of the Trots", Whatnextjournal, version of article "They Put the Rot in Trotsky", Tribune, 5 September 2003
- John Rentoul "Debate with the Restart the War Coalition", The Independent (Eagle Eye blog), 18 August 2010
- Alan Johnson "The Euston moment", theguardian.com, 21 April 2008. Also see, for example, Paul McGarr "A short war will boost US power", Socialist Worker, no.1843, 22 March 2003
- Matthew Tempest "Anti-war coalition looks to the future", theguardian.com, 23 January 2004
- Alex Nunns "Car crash on the left", Red Pepper, December 2007
- Mike Gonzalez, "Great opportunity to move forward in Scotland", Socialist Worker, 26 August 2006
- "TUSC left coalition to stand in general election". Socialist Worker. 6 February 2010. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
- David Tate "Unite against Fascism: let's hope so", guardian.co.uk, 24 May 2006
- David Hirsch "Openly embracing prejudice", guardian.co.uk,, 30 November 2006
- John Lewis "Manic beat preacher", The Guardian, 6 March 2009
- "Changes in the party’s leadership". Socialist Worker. 17 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-13.
- "Internal Bulletin 1, October 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-16.
- Peter Manson "Formation of Rees faction means SWP is on the verge of a split", Weekly Worker, #790, 22 October 2009
- "More conference decisions". Socialist Worker. 12 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-13.
- "Solomon's Mindfield: A Party to Win? Clare Solomon's expulsion from SWP". Solomonsmindfield.blogspot.com. 2009-11-23. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
- Manson, Peter (14 January 2010). "Left Platform trounced". Weekly Worker.
- "Solomon's Mindfield: My expulsion from the SWP has been ratified by conference". Solomonsmindfield.blogspot.com. 2010-01-10. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
- "Why we are resigning from SWP: an open letter". Solomon's Mindfield. 16 February 2010.
- "Right to Work conference: ‘We can fight, we can win’". Socialist Worker. 6 February 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- "Martin Smith - 'I will appeal and clear my name'". Socialist Worker. 11 September 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- "Bristol runs the EDL out of town". 15 July 2012.
- "Stopping racists is not crime—drop charges against Weyman Bennett". Socialist Worker. 3 April 2010. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
- "Police drop plan to charge anti-fascists for 'conspiracy' over Bolton demonstration". Socialist Worker. 13 November 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Gallagher, Paul (23 May 2011). "Leftwing protestors break up talks to prevent BA strike". The Observer.
- "BA and union talks stopped by protesters". BBC News. 22 May 2010.
- "BA's Willie Walsh 'trying to divide Unite'". Channel 4 News. 23 May 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "BBC NEWS – Election 2010 – UK - National". BBC News.
- "Bambery resigns from SWP".
- "New socialist organisation formed in Scotland". Counterfire. 12 April 2011.
- Paul Kellogg "Britain: Reflections on the crisis in the Socialist Workers Party", LINKS - Internatiobnal Journal of Socialist Renewal (blog of Australian publication), 13 January 2013
- Jerome Taylor "Ranks of the Socialist Workers Party are split over handling of rape allegation", The Independent, 11 January 2013
- Nick Cohen "Sexual abuse: Don’t toe the party line", The Spectator (blog), 25 February 2013
- Laurie Penny "What does the SWP's way of dealing with sex assault allegations tell us about the left?", New Statesman, 11 January 2013
- John Palmer "Facing reality – after the crisis in the SWP", Red Pepper, January 2013
- Callinicos, Alex (February 2013). "Is Leninism finished?". Socialist Review. Retrieved 28 January 2013.. For an 'internal' response, see Gonzalez, Mike (21 May 2013). "Teaching Callinicos a lesson". Weekly Worker.
- Charlie Kimber "Response to attacks on the SWP", SWP Online, 14 January 2013
- Ben Lewis "SWP: No return to normal", Weekly Worker, 946, 24 January 2013
- Owen Hatherley "A tale of rape claims, abuses of power and the Socialist Workers party", The Guardian, 8 February 2013
- Shiv Malik and Nick Cohen "Socialist Workers Party leadership under fire over rape kangaroo court", guardian.co.uk, 9 March 2013. See also Nick Cohen "Sexual abuse: Don’t toe the party line", The Spectator (blog), 25 February 2013
- Laurie Penny "The SWP and rape: why I care about this Marxist-Leninist implosion", The Guardian, 12 March 2013
- Richard Seymour "The SWP leadership has turned the party into a sinking ship", guardian.co.uk, 22 March 2013
- Richard Seymour "On resigning from the SWP", Lenin's Tomb, 12 March 2013
- Julie Sherry "Challenging sexism is at the heart of the SWP's work", The Guardian, 21 March 2013
- Owen Jones "British politics urgently needs a new force - a movement on the Left to counter capitalism's crisis", The Independent, 20 January 2013
- "Walkout during NUS National Conference over SWP 'rape apologists'", Blottr, 9 April 2013
- Hugh Muir "Diary: How the SWP turns drama into crisis – fresh accusations rock the party", The Guardian, 8 July 2013
- Hugh Muir "Diary: Adieu, Comrade Delta. The SWP leader at the centre of sex abuse allegations departs", The Guardian, 29 July 2013
- Owen Hatherley "A tale of rape claims, abuses of power and the Socialist Workers party", The Guardian, 8 February 2013
- "SWP Conference Debates the way Forward for the Resistance". Socialist Worker. 12 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
- Post conference bulletin, Socialist Workers Party, January 2006
- Lipsett, Anthea (2008-03-27). "Union committee to reconsider Israeli academics boycott". The Guardian (London).
- Duncan Hallas: Introduction to Origins of the International Socialists, Pluto Press, 1971. (accessed 2008-05-29)
- Tony Cliff: Marxism at the Millennium, Bookmarks, 2000. (accessed 2008-05-29)
- Rules of the International Workingmen's Association (accessed 2008-05-29)
- Cliff, Gluckstein. The Labour Party, p.2
- Tony Cliff: "Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Indonesia", International Socialism 80, September 1998. (accessed 2008-05-29)
- Tony Cliff: Marxism at the Millennium, Bookmarks, 2000 (accessed 2008-05-29)
- "Where We Stand", in every issue of Socialist Worker. (accessed 2013-03-26)
- Tony Cliff: The Nature of Stalinist Russia, (1948) (accessed 2005-05-29)
- Tony Cliff: The theory of bureaucratic collectivism: A critique (1948) (accessed 2008-05-29)
- Tony Cliff: "Permanent Revolution", International Socialism (1st series), No. 12, Spring 1963 (accessed 2008-95-29)
- Peter Bins & Mike Gonzalez: "Castro, Cuba and Socialism", International Socialism 2:8, Spring 1980 (accessed 2008-5-29)
- T. N. Vance: "The Permanent War Economy", New International, Vol. 17 Nos. 1-6, January–November 1951 (accessed 2008-05-29)
- Jim Higgins: More Years for the Locust (1997) (accessed 2008-05-29)
- Tony Cliff: "Perspectives of the Permanent War Economy", Socialist Review, May 1957 (accessed 2008-05-29)
- Michael Kidron: Western Capitalism Since the War, Penguin (1968) (accessed 2008-05-29)
- Michael Kidron: "Two Insights Don't Make a Theory", International Socialism (1st series), No. 100, July 1977 (accessed 2008-05-29)
- Chris Harman: "Better a valid insight than a wrong theory", International Socialism (1st series), No. 100, July 1977 (accessed 2008-05-29)
- Post Worker website.
- luna17 (2010-02-16). "Luna17: Why we are resigning from SWP: an open letter". Luna17activist.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
- "Why we are resigning from the SWP". Socialist Unity. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
- dead link
- "“Why we are resigning from the SWP” « faithful to the line". Faithfultotheline.wordpress.com. 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Socialist Workers Party (UK).|
- SWP web site
- Socialist Worker online
- Socialist Review online
- International Socialism online
- Searchable text of several SWP publications including ISJ and SR
- Bookmarks the SWP's bookshop and publisher
- International Socialist Archive
- The Smallest Mass Party In The World by Ian Birchall: a history of the SWP and its predecessors to 1981, written by a prominent SWP member.
- T. Cliff, A World to Win, Bookmarks Publications, London, 2000. ISBN 1-898876-62-2 Tony Cliff's autobiography.
- Origins of the International Socialists, Duncan Hallas
- Resistance MP3s, site with MP3s mainly recorded at the SWP's annual Marxism conference
- Catalogue of the ISG archives, held at the Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick
- Socialist Alternative (Australia) on the SWP and Respect
- The AWL on the Socialist Workers Party
- Debate between the Socialist Party and the SWP
- More Years for the Locust: The Origins of the SWP, Critique of Cliff and the SWP by Jim Higgins, former National Secretary of the International Socialists.
- The Fourth International on the Socialist Workers Party, International Viewpoint
- Martin Shaw, "The Making of a Party? The International Socialists 1965-1976"
- "The Struggle for Socialism Today" - A reply to the politics of the Socialist Workers Party by the Socialist Party
- Mark Thomas has had enough of the SWP