Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy to influence public opinion and/or policy; they have played and continue to play an important part in the development of political and social systems. Groups vary considerably in size, influence, and motive; some have wide ranging long term social purposes, others are focused and are a response to an immediate issue or concern.
Motives for action may be based on a shared political, religious, moral, or commercial position. Groups use varied methods to try to achieve their aims including lobbying, media campaigns, publicity stunts, polls, research, and policy briefings. Some groups are supported by powerful business or political interests and exert considerable influence on the political process, others have few such resources.
Some have developed into important social, political institutions or social movements. Some powerful lobby groups have been accused of manipulating the democratic system for narrow commercial gain1 and in some instances have been found guilty of corruption, fraud, bribery, and other serious crimes;2 lobbying has become increasingly regulated as a result. Some groups, generally ones with less financial resources, may use direct action and civil disobedience and in some cases are accused of being a threat to the social order or 'domestic extremists'.3 Research is beginning to explore how advocacy groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action.4
An advocacy group is a group or an organization which tries to influence the government but does not hold power in the government. A single-issue group may form in response to a particular issue area sometimes in response to a single event or threat. In some cases initiatives initially championed by advocacy groups later become institutionalized as important elements of civic life (for example universal education or regulation of doctors — see below for details). Groups representing broad interests of a group may be formed with the purpose of benefiting the group over an extended period of time and in many ways, example as Consumer organizations, Professional associations, Trade associations, and Trade unions.
The early growth of advocacy groups was connected to broad economic and political changes in England in the mid-18th century, including political representation, market capitalization, and proletarianization. The first mass social movement catalyzed around the controversial political figure, John Wilkes.5 As editor of the paper The North Briton, Wilkes vigorously attacked the new administration of Lord Bute and the peace terms that the new government accepted at the 1763 Treaty of Paris at the end of the Seven Years' War. Charged with seditious libel, Wilkes was arrested after the issue of a general warrant, a move that Wilkes denounced as unlawful - the Lord Chief Justice eventually ruled in Wilkes favour. As a result of this episode, Wilkes became a figurehead to the growing movement for popular sovereignty among the middle classes - people began chanting, "Wilkes and Liberty" in the streets.
After a later period of exile, brought about by further charges of libel and obscenity, Wilkes stood for the Parliamentary seat at Middlesex, where most of his support was located.6 When Wilkes was imprisoned in the King's Bench Prison on 10 May 1768, a mass movement of support emerged, with large demonstrations in the streets under the slogan "No liberty, no King."7 Stripped of the right to sit in Parliament, Wilkes became an Alderman of London in 1769, and an activist group called the Society for the Supporters of the Bill of Rights began aggressively promoting his policies.8 This was the first ever sustained social advocacy group;—it involved public meetings, demonstrations, the distribution of pamphlets on an unprecedented scale and the mass petition march. However, the movement was careful not to cross the line into open rebellion;—it tried to rectify the faults in governance through appeals to existing legal precedents and was conceived of as an extra-Parliamentary form of agitation to arrive at a consensual and constitutional arrangement.9 The force and influence of this social advocacy movement on the streets of London compelled the authorities to concede to the movement's demands. Wilkes was returned to Parliament, general warrants were declared as unconstitutional and press freedom was extended to the coverage of Parliamentary debates.
Another important advocacy group that emerged in the late 18th century was the British abolitionist movement against slavery. Starting with an organised sugar boycott in 1791, it led the second great petition drive of 1806, which brought about the banning of the slave trade in 1807. In the opinion of Eugene Black (1963), "...association made possible the extension of the politically effective public. Modern extra parliamentary political organization is a product of the late eighteenth century [and] the history of the age of reform cannot be written without it.10
From 1815, Britain after victory in the Napoleonic Wars entered a period of social upheaval characterised by the growing maturity of the use of social movements and special-interest associations. Chartism was the first mass movement of the growing working-class in the world.11 It campaigned for political reform between 1838 and 1848 with the People's Charter of 1838 as it's manifesto - this called for universal suffrage and the implementation of the secret ballot, amongst other things. The term "social movements" was introduced in 1848 by the German Sociologist Lorenz von Stein in his book Socialist and Communist Movements since the Third French Revolution (1848) in which he introduced the term "social movement" into scholarly discussions12 - actually depicting in this way political movements fighting for the social rights understood as welfare rights.
The labor movement and socialist movement of the late 19th century are seen as the prototypical social movements, leading to the formation of communist and social democratic parties and organisations. These tendencies were seen in poorer countries as pressure for reform continued, for example in Russia with the Russian Revolution of 1905 and of 1917, resulting in the collapse of the Czarist regime around the end of the First World War.
In the post-war period, women's rights, gay rights, peace, civil rights, anti-nuclear and environmental movements emerged, often dubbed the New Social Movements 13 They led, among other things, to the formation of green parties and organisations influenced by the new left. Some find in the end of the 1990s the emergence of a new global social movement, the anti-globalization movement. Some social movement scholars posit that with the rapid pace of globalization, the potential for the emergence of new type of social movement is latent—they make the analogy to national movements of the past to describe what has been termed a global citizens movement.
Advocacy groups exist in a wide variety of genres based upon their most pronounced activities.
- Anti-defamation organizations issue responses or criticisms to real or supposed slights of any sort (including speech or violence) by an individual or group against a specific segment of the population which the organization exists to represent.
- Watchdog groups exist to provide oversight and rating of actions or media by various outlets, both government and corporate. They may also index personalities, organizations, products, and activities in databases to provide coverage and rating of the value or viability of such entities to target demographics.
- Lobby groups Lobby for a change to the law or the maintenance of a particular law and big businesses fund very considerable lobbying influence on legislators, for example in the USA and in the UK where lobbying first developed. Some Lobby groups have considerable financial resources at their disposal. Lobbying is regulated to stop the worst abuses which can develop into corruption. In the United States the Internal Revenue Service makes a clear distinction between lobbying and advocacy.14
- Legal defense funds provide funding for the legal defense for, or legal action against, individuals or groups related to their specific interests or target demographic. This is often accompanied by one of the above types of advocacy groups filing an Amicus curiae if the cause at stake serves the interests of both the legal defense fund and the other advocacy groups.
In most liberal democracies, advocacy groups tend to use the bureaucracy as the main channel of influence – because, in liberal democracies, this is where the decision-making power lies. The aim of pressure groups here is to attempt to influence a member of the legislature to support their cause by voting a certain way in the legislature. Access to this channel is generally restricted to groups with insider status such as large corporations and trade unions – groups with outsider status are unlikely to be able to meet with ministers or other members of the bureaucracy to discuss policy. What must be understood about groups exerting influence in the bureaucracy is; "the crucial relationship here [in the bureaucracy] is usually that between the senior bureaucrats and leading business or industrial interests".15 This supports the view that groups with greater financial resources at their disposal will generally be better able to influence the decision-making process of government. The advantages that large businesses have is mainly due to the fact that they are key producers within their countries economy and, therefore, their interests are important to the government as their contributions are important to the economy. According to George Monbiot, the influence of big business has been strengthened by "the greater ease with which corporations can relocate production and investment in a global economy".16 This suggests that in the ever modernising world, big business has an increasing role in influencing the bureaucracy and in turn, the decision-making process of government.
Advocacy groups can also exert influence through the assembly by lobbying. Groups with greater economic resources at their disposal can employ professional lobbyists to try and exert influence in the assembly. An example of such a group is the environmentalist group Greenpeace; Greenpeace (an organisation with income upward of $50,000,000) use lobbying to gain political support for their campaigns. They raise issues about the environment with the aim of having their issues translated into policy such as the government encouraging alternative energy and recycling.
The judicial branch of government can also be used by advocacy groups to exert influence. In states where legislation cannot be challenged by the courts, like the UK, pressure groups are limited in the amount of influence they have. In states that have codified constitutions, like the USA, however, pressure group influence is much more significant. For example, – in 1954 the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) lobbied against the Topeka Board of education, arguing that segregation of education based on race was unconstitutional. As a result of group pressure from the NAACP, the supreme court unanimously ruled that racial segregation in education was indeed unconstitutional and such practices were banned. This is a novel example of how pressure groups can exert influence in the judicial branch of government.
Advocacy groups can also exert influence on political parties. The main way groups do this is through campaign finance. For instance; in the UK, the conservative parties campaigns are often funded by large corporations, as many of the conservative parties campaigns reflect the interests of businesses. For example, George W Bush's re-election campaign in 2004 was the most expensive in American history and was financed mainly by large corporations and industrial interests that the Bush administration represented in government. Conversely, left-wing parties are often funded by organised labour – when the labour party was first formed, it was largely funded by trade unions. Often, political parties are actually formed as a result of group pressure, for example, the Labour Party in the UK was formed out of the new trade-union movement which lobbied for the rights of workers.
Advocacy groups also exert influence through channels that are separate from the government or the political structure such as the mass media and through public opinion campaigning. Pressure groups will use methods such as protesting, petitioning and civil disobedience to attempt to exert influence in Liberal Democracies. Groups will generally use two distinct styles when attempting to manipulate the media – they will either put across their outsider status and use their inability to access the other channels of influence to gain sympathy or they may put across a more ideological agenda. Traditionally, a prime example of such a group were the trade-unions who were the so-called "industrial" muscle. Trade-unions would campaign in the forms of industrial action and marches for workers rights, these gained much media attention and sympathy for their cause. In the USA, the Civil Rights Campaign gained much of its publicity through civil disobedience; African Americans would simply disobey the racist segregation laws to get the violent, racist reaction from the police and white Americans. This violence and racism was then broadcast all over the world, showing the world just how one sided the race 'war' in America actually was.
Advocacy group influence has also manifested itself in supranational bodies that have arisen through globalisation. Groups that already had a global structure such as Greenpeace were better able to adapt to globalisation. Greenpeace, for example, have offices in over 30 countries and has an income of $50 million annually. Groups such as these have secured the nature of their influence by gaining status as nongovernmental organisations (NGOs), many of which oversee the work of the UN and the EU from their permanent offices in America and Europe. Group pressure by supranational industries can be exerted in a number of ways: "through direct lobbying by large corporations, national trade bodies and 'peak' associations such as the European Round Table of Industrialist".15
There are many significant advocacy groups through history, some of which could be considered to operate with different dynamics and could better be described as social movements. Here are some notable groups operating in different parts of the world:
- American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC), the American Israel lobby, which is described by the New York Times as the "most influential Lobby impacting US relations with Israel."17
- British Medical Association, which formed at a meeting of 50 doctors in 1832 for the sharing of knowledge; its lobbying led to the Medical Act 1858 and the formation of the General Medical Council which has registered and regulated doctors in the UK to this date.18
- Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, which has advocated for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and unilateral nuclear disarmament in the UK since 1957, and whose logo is now an international peace symbol.19
- Center for Auto Safety, an organization formed in 1970 which aims to give consumers a voice for auto safety and quality in the United States.20
- Drug Policy Alliance, whose principal goal is to end the American "War on Drugs".21
- Electronic Frontier Foundation, an international non-profit digital rights advocacy and legal organization based in the United States.
- Energy Lobby, an umbrella term for the representatives of large oil, gas, coal, and electric utilities corporations that attempt to influence governmental policy in the United States.
- Financial Services Roundtable, an organization representing the banking lobby.
- Greenpeace, an organization formed in 1970 as the Don't Make a Wave Committee to stop nuclear weapons testing in the United States.22
- The Human Rights Campaign, an LGBT civil rights advocacy and lobbying organization seeking to advance the cause of LGBT rights in America.23
- National Rifle Association, an organization that formed in New York in 1871 to protect the rights of gun-owners.24
- Oxfam, an organization formed in 1942 in the UK as the 'Oxford Committee for Famine Relief'.25
- Pennsylvania Abolition Society, which formed in Philadelphia in 1775 with a mission to abolish slavery in the United States.26
- People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, an animal rights organization that focuses primarily on animal treatment on factory farms, in the clothing trade, in laboratories, and in the entertainment industry.27
- Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, founded in Manchester in 1889 to campaign against the 'barbarous trade in plumes for women's hats'.28
- Sierra Club, which formed in 1892 to help protect the Sierra Nevada.29
- Stop the War Coalition, an organization against the War on Terrorism which included a march of between 750,000 and 2,000,000 people in London in 2003.30
- Suffragettes, which sought to gain voting rights for women through direct action and hunger strikes from 1865-1928 in the United Kingdom.31
- The Affiliated Residential Park Residents Association Incorporated (ARPRA), which was established in 1986 to represent residents of residential parks in New South Wales, Australia.
- Sunday School movement, which formed in about 1751 to promote universal schooling in the UK.32
- Tories, which formed in 1678 to fight the British Exclusion Bill and developed into one of the first political parties, now known as the Conservative Party.33
On some controversial issues there are a number of competing advocacy groups, sometimes with very different resources available to them:
- Pro-choice movement vs Pro-life movement (abortion policy in the United States)
- SPEAK campaign vs Pro-Test (animal testing in United Kingdom)
- The Automobile Association vs Pedestrians' Association (now 'Living Streets') (road safety in the United Kingdom since 1929)
- Tobacco Institute vs Action on Smoking and Health (tobacco legislation)
- Flying Matters vs Plane Stupid (aviation policy in the United Kingdom since 2007)
The general theory is that individuals must be enticed with some type of benefit to join an interest group.34 Known as the free rider problem, it refers to the difficulty of obtaining members of a particular interest group when the benefits are already reaped without membership. For instance, an interest group dedicated to improving farming standards will fight for the general goal of improving farming for every farmer, even those who are not members of that particular interest group. Thus, there is no real incentive to join an interest group and pay dues if the farmer will receive that benefit anyway.35 Interest groups must receive dues and contributions from its members in order to accomplish its agenda. While every individual in the world would benefit from a cleaner environment, an Environmental protection interest group does not, in turn, receive monetary help from every individual in the world.36
Selective material benefits are benefits that are usually given in monetary benefits. For instance, if an interest group gives a material benefit to their member, they could give them travel discounts, free meals at certain restaurants, or free subscriptions to magazines, newspapers, or journals.35 Many trade and professional interest groups tend to give these types of benefits to their members. A selective solidary benefit is another type of benefit offered to members or prospective members of an interest group. These incentives involve benefits like "socializing congeniality, the sense of group membership and identification, the status resulting from membership, fun and conviviality, the maintenance of social distinctions, and so on.37 A solidary incentive is one in which the rewards for participation are socially derived and created out of the act of association.
An expressive incentive is another basic type of incentive or benefit offered to being a member of an interest group. People who join an interest group because of expressive benefits likely joined to express an ideological or moral value that they believe in. Some include free speech, civil rights, economic justice, or political equality. To obtain these types of benefits, members would simply pay dues, donating their time or money to get a feeling of satisfaction from expressing a political value. Also, it would not matter if the interest group achieved their goal; these members would merely be able to say they helped out in the process of trying to obtain these goals, which is the expressive incentive that they got in the first place.38 The types of interest groups that rely on expressive benefits or incentives would be environmental groups and groups who claim to be lobbying for the public interest.36
Some public policy interests are not recognized or addressed by a group at all, and these interests are labeled latent interest.
Much work has been undertaken by academics in trying to categorise how pressure groups operate, particularly in relation to governmental policy creation.
The field is dominated by numerous differing schools of thought:
- Pluralism: This is based upon the understanding that pressure groups operate in competition with one another and play a key role in the political system. They do this by acting as a counterweight to undue concentrations of power.
- However, this pluralist theory (formed primarily by American academics) reflects a more open and fragmented political system similar to that in countries such as the United States. Under neo-pluralism, a concept of political communities developed that is more similar to the British form of government
- Neo-Pluralism: This is based on the concept of political communities in that pressure groups and other such bodies are organised around a government department and its network of client groups. The members of this network co-operate together during the policy making process.
- Corporatism: Some lobby groups are backed by private businesses which can have a considerable influence on legislature.
A study published in early 20124 suggests that advocacy groups of varying political and ideological orientations operating in the United States are using social media to interact with citizens every day. The study surveyed 53 groups, who were found to be using a variety of social media technologies to achieve organizational and political goals. Facebook was the social media site of choice with all but one group noting that they use the site to connect with citizens. Twitter was also popular with all but two groups saying that they use Twitter. Other social media being used included YouTube, Linkedin, wikis, Flickr, Jumo, Diigo, Tumblr, Foursquare, Identi.ca, Picasa and Vimeo. As noted in the study, "while some groups raised doubts about social media’s ability to overcome the limitations of weak ties and generational gaps, an overwhelming majority of groups see social media as essential to contemporary advocacy work, and laud its democratizing function."4
- Campaign finance in the United States
- Client politics
- Identity politics
- Lobbying in the United States
- Non-governmental organization (NGO)
- Pressure groups in the United Kingdom
- Helm, Toby (2009-01-18). "Fury at airport lobby links to No 10". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2010-03-04.
- "COMPLAINTS FROM MR MOHAMED AL FAYED,THE GUARDIAN AND OTHERS AGAINST 25 MEMBERS AND FORMER MEMBERS". Parliament. Retrieved 2010-03-08.
- Monbiot, George (2009-02-16). "Meet the new Britain: just like the old one where green protesters are spied on". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-23.
- Obar, Jonathan et al. (2012). "Advocacy 2.0: An Analysis of How Advocacy Groups in the United States Perceive and Use Social Media as Tools for Facilitating Civic Engagement and Collective Action". Journal of Information Policy.
- Charles Tilly. "BRITAIN CREATES THE SOCIAL MOVEMENT" (PDF).
- Cash 2006, pp. 204–26.
- Cash 2006, pp. 216–26.
- Rudbeck, J. (2012). "Popular sovereignty and the historical origin of the social movement". Theory and Society 41 (6): 581–601. doi:10.1007/s11186-012-9180-x.
- Eugene Charlton Black (1963). The Association British Extra Parliamentary Political Organization, 1769-1793. Harvard University Press. p. 279.
- "Chartism: the birth of mass working class resistance". Retrieved 2012-12-17.
- Tilly, 2004, p.5
- Westd, David B. "New Social Movements." Knowledge Center. Built on the Thematic Theme Framework., 16 July 2004.
- "Lobbying Versus Advocacy: Legal Definitions". NP Action. Archived from the original on 2 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-02.
- Heywood, Andrew (2007). Politics. London: MacMillan. p. 305.
- Monibot, George (2011). The Captive State: The Corporate Take-Over of Britain. London: Pan.
- "And the winner is ... the Israel lobby". Asia Times. 2008-06-03. Archived from the original on 30 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
Former president Bill Clinton defined it as "stunningly effective". Former speaker of the House of Representatives Newt Gingrich called it "the most effective general-interest group across the entire planet". The New York Times as "the most important organization affecting America's relationship with Israel"
- "BMA History".
- John Minnion and Philip Bolsover (eds.) (1983). The CND Story. Alison and Busby. ISBN 0-85031-487-9.
- "About us". Center for Auto Safety.
- "About the Drug Policy Alliance". Drug Policy Alliance. Archived from the original on 4 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
- Michael Brown & John May. The Greenpeace Story. ISBN 0-86318-691-2.
- "History". National Rifle Association.
- "history". Oxfam.
- "Founding of Pennsylvania Abolition Society". pbs.
- "History". People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals.
- "History of the RSPB". RSPB. Archived from the original on 26 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-19.
- "Welcome". Sierra Club.
- "'Million' march against Iraq war". BBC News. 16 February 2003.
- "The campaign for suffrage - a historical background".
- "Robert Raikes and the Sunday School Movement".
- Cooke, Alistair (August 2008). "A Brief History of the Conservatives" (PDF). Conservative Research Department. Archived from the original on 30 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- John R. Wright. Interest Groups and Congress, Lobbying, Contributions, and Influence. Longman. pp. 19–22. ISBN 0-02-430301-1. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- Olson, Mancur (1971) . The Logic of Collective Action : Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (Revised ed.). Harvard University Press. pp. 111–131. ISBN 0-674-53751-3.
- John R. Wright. Interest Groups and Congress, Lobbying, Contributions, and Influence. Longman. pp. 19–21. ISBN 0-02-430301-1. Retrieved 2010-10-16.
- Peter B. Clark and James Q. Wilson (1961). Incentive Systems: A Theory of Organizations (6). Administrative Science Quarterly. pp. 134–135.
- Robert H. Salisbury (1969). An Exchange Theory of Interest Groups. Midwest Journal of Political Science 13. pp. 1–32.
- James Q. Wilson (1995). Political Organization. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04385-X.
- Sullivan, Arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 54. ISBN 0-13-063085-3.
- David Walls, The Activist's Almanac: The Concerned Citizen's Guide to the Leading Advocacy Organizations in America (Simon & Schuster/Fireside, 1993). ISBN 0-671-74634-0