c. 450 BC — Sushruta wrote the Sushruta Samhita, describing over 120 surgical instruments and 300 surgical procedures, classifying human surgery into eight categories, and introducing cosmetic and plastic surgery.1
c. 350 BC — Aristotle attempted a comprehensive classification of animals. His written works include Historion Animalium, a general biology of animals, De Partibus Animalium, a comparative anatomy and physiology of animals, and De Generatione Animalium, on developmental biology.
c. 850 — Al-Dinawari is considered the founder of Arabic botany for his Book of Plants, in which he describes at least 637 plants and discussed plant evolution from its birth to its death, describing the phases of plant growth and the production of flowers and fruit.6
c. 900 — Rhazes (865-925) distinguishes smallpox from measles, and compiles a casebook of his experiences as a physician, al-Hawi.
c. 1150 — Avenzoar adheres to experimental dissection and autopsy, which he carries out to prove that the skin disease scabies is caused by a parasite, a discovery which upsets the theory of humorism;10 and he also introduces experimental surgery,11 where animal testing is used to experiment with surgical techniques prior to using them on humans.12
c. 1225 — Ibn al-Baitar, al-Nabati's student, writes his Kitab al-Jami fi al-Adwiya al-Mufrada, a botanical and pharmaceutical encyclopedia describing 1,400 plants, foods, and drugs, 300 of which are his own original discoveries; a later Latin translation of his work is useful to European biologists and pharmacists in the 18th and 19th centuries.15
1668 — Francesco Redi disproved spontaneous generation by showing that fly maggots only appear on pieces of meat in jars if the jars are open to the air. Jars covered with cheesecloth contained no flies.
1672 — Marcello Malpighi published the first description of chick development, including the formation of muscle somites, circulation, and nervous system.
1683 — Anton van Leeuwenhoek observed bacteria. Leeuwenhoek's discoveries renew the question of spontaneous generation in microorganisms.
1767 — Kaspar Friedrich Wolff argued that the tissues of a developing chick form from nothing and are not simply elaborations of already-present structures in the egg.
1768 — Lazzaro Spallanzani again disproved spontaneous generation by showing that no organisms grow in a rich broth if it is first heated (to kill any organisms) and allowed to cool in a stoppered flask. He also showed that fertilization in mammals requires an egg and semen.
1802 — The term biology in its modern sense was propounded independently by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (Biologie oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur) and Lamarck (Hydrogéologie). The word was coined in 1800 by Karl Friedrich Burdach.
1809 — Lamarck proposed a modern theory of evolution based on the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
1858 — Rudolf Virchow proposed that cells can only arise from pre-existing cells; "Omnis cellula e celulla," all cell from cells. The Cell Theory states that all organisms are composed of cells (Schleiden and Schwann), and cells can only come from other cells (Virchow).
1864 — Louis Pasteur disproved the spontaneous generation of cellular life.
1865 — Gregor Mendel demonstrated in pea plants that inheritance follows definite rules. The Principle of Segregation states that each organism has two genes per trait, which segregate when the organism makes eggs or sperm. The Principle of Independent Assortment states that each gene in a pair is distributed independently during the formation of eggs or sperm. Mendel's trailblazing foundation for the science of genetics went unnoticed, to his lasting disappointment.
1876 — Oskar Hertwig and Hermann Fol independently described (in sea urchin eggs) the entry of sperm into the egg and the subsequent fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei to form a single new nucleus.
1884 — Emil Fischer began his detailed analysis of the compositions and structures of sugars.
1892 — Hans Driesch separated the individual cells of a 2-cell sea urchin embryo and shows that each cell develops into a complete individual, thus disproving the theory of preformation and showing that each cell is "totipotent," containing all the hereditary information necessary to form an individual.
1952 — American developmental biologists Robert Briggs and Thomas King cloned the first vertebrate by transplanting nuclei from leopard frogs embryos into enucleated eggs. More differentiated cells were the less able they are to direct development in the enucleated egg.
1952 — Rosalind Franklin concluded that DNA is a double helix with a diameter of 2 nm and the sugar-phosphate backbones on the outside of the helix, based on x ray diffraction studies. She suspected the two sugar-phosphate backbones have a peculiar relationship to each other.
1953 — After examining Franklin's unpublished data, James D. Watson and Francis Crick published a double-helix structure for DNA, with one sugar-phosphate backbone running in the opposite direction to the other. They further suggested a mechanism by which the molecule can replicate itself and serve to transmit genetic information. Their paper, combined with the Hershey-Chase experiment and Chargaff's data on nucleotides, finally persuaded biologists that DNA is the genetic material, not protein.
1972 — Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge proposed an idea they call "punctuated equilibrium", which states that the fossil record is an accurate depiction of the pace of evolution, with long periods of "stasis" (little change) punctuated by brief periods of rapid change and species formation (within a lineage).
^Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health43 (4), p. 357-377 .
^Diane Boulanger (2002), "The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology", OISE Papers, in STSE Education, Vol. 3.
^S. A. Al-Dabbagh (1978). "Ibn Al-Nafis and the pulmonary circulation", The Lancet1, p. 1148.
^Husain F. Nagamia (2003), "Ibn al-Nafīs: A Biographical Sketch of the Discoverer of Pulmonary and Coronary Circulation", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine1, p. 22–28.