UNESCO

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United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNESCO.svg
Abbreviation UNESCO
ONUÉSC
Formation 4 November 19461
Type Specialized agency
Legal status Active
Headquarters Located on the Place de Fontenoy, in Paris, the main building which houses the Headquarters of UNESCO was inaugurated on 3 November 1958.
Head Irina Bokova
Director-General of UNESCO
Website www.unesco.org
The flag of UNESCO.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture; UNESCO; /juːˈnɛsk/) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).

Its purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the UN Charter.1 It is the heir of the League of Nations' International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation.

UNESCO has 195 member states2 and nine associate members.34

Most of the field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; there are also national and regional offices.

UNESCO pursue its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information.

Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programmes; international science programmes; the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press; regional and cultural history projects; the promotion of cultural diversity; translations of world literature; international cooperation agreements to secure the world cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. It is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.5

UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information".6

Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.7

The broad goals and concrete objectives of the international community — as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) — underpin all UNESCO's strategies and activities.

History

UNESCO and its mandate for international co-operation can be traced back to the League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study the question.8 The International Committee on Intellectual Co-operation (ICIC) was officially created on 4 January 1922, as a consultative organ composed of individuals elected based on their personal qualifications. The International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) was then created in Paris on 9 August 1925, to act as the executing agency for the ICIC.9 On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education (IBE) began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development.10 However, the work of these predecessor organizations was largely interrupted by the onset of World War II.

After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME) began meetings in London which continued between 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the USSR. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented. A prominent figure in the initiative for UNESCO was Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom.11 At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, and a Preparatory Commission was established.12 The Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state.13

The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Julian Huxley to the post of Director-General.14 The Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity.15 This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the CICI, in terms of how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence. As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate, political and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, and the dissolution of the USSR.

Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists (among them was Claude Lévi-Strauss) and other scientists in 195016 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice.17 In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO claiming that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems."18 South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela.

UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947.19 This project was followed by expert missions to other countries, including, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.20 In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal.21 In 1990 the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults.22 Ten years later, the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, led member governments to commit to achieving basic education for all by 2015.23

UNESCO's early activities in the field of culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960.24 The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of Abu Simbel to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after construction of the Aswan Dam. During the 20-year campaign, 22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including Mohenjo-daro (Pakistan), Fes (Morocco), Kathmandu (Nepal), Borobudur (Indonesia) and the Acropolis (Greece). The organization's work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.25 The World Heritage Committee was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1978.26 Since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO member states in 2003 (Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage27) and 2005 (Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions28).

An intergovernmental meeting of UNESCO in Paris in December 1951 led to the creation of the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN)29 in 1954.

Arid Zone programming, 1948–1966, is another example of an early major UNESCO project in the field of natural sciences.30 In 1968, UNESCO organized the first intergovernmental conference aimed at reconciling the environment and development, a problem which continues to be addressed in the field of sustainable development. The main outcome of the 1968 conference was the creation of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme.31

In the field of communication, the free flow of information has been a priority for UNESCO from its beginnings. In the years immediately following World War II, efforts were concentrated on reconstruction and on the identification of needs for means of mass communication around the world. UNESCO started organizing training and education for journalists in the 1950s.32 In response to calls for a "New World Information and Communication Order" in the late 1970s, UNESCO established the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems,33 which produced the 1980 MacBride report (named after the Chair of the Commission, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Seán MacBride).34 Following the MacBride report, UNESCO introduced the Information Society for All35 programme and Toward Knowledge Societies36 programme in the lead up to the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003 (Geneva) and 2005 (Tunis).

In 2011, Palestine became a UNESCO member following a vote in which 107 member states supported and 14 opposed.3738 Laws passed in the United States in 1990 and 1994 mean that it cannot contribute financially to any UN organisation that accepts Palestine as a full member. As a result, it will withdraw its funding which accounts for about 22% of UNESCO's budget.39 Israel also reacted to Palestine's admittance to UNESCO by freezing Israel payments to the UNESCO and imposing sanctions to the Palestinian Authority,40 claiming that Palestine's admittance would be detrimental "to potential peace talks".41

Activities

UNESCO offices in Brasília

UNESCO implements its activities through the five programme areas of Education, Natural Sciences, Social and Human Sciences, Culture, and Communication and Information.

  • Education: UNESCO supports research in comparative education; and provides expertise and fosters partnerships to strengthen national educational leadership and the capacity of countries to offer quality education for all. This includes the

UNESCO does not accredit institutions of higher learning.42

Official UNESCO NGOs

UNESCO enjoys official relations with 322 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs).46 Most of these are what UNESCO calls "operational", a select few are "formal".47 The highest form of affiliation to UNESCO is "formal associate", and the 22 NGOs48 with formal associate (ASC) relations occupying offices at UNESCO are:

  1. International Baccalaureate (IB)
  2. Co-ordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service (CCIVS)
  3. Education International (EI)
  4. International Association of Universities (IAU)
  5. International Council for Film, Television and Audiovisual Communication (IFTC)
  6. International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (ICPHS) which publishes Diogenes
  7. International Council for Science (ICSU)
  8. International Council of Museums (ICOM)
  9. International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE)
  10. International Council on Archives (ICA)
  11. International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)
  12. International Federation of Journalists (IFJ)
  13. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)
  14. International Federation of Poetry Associations (IFPA)
  15. International Music Council (IMC)
  16. International Police Association (IPA)
  17. International Scientific Council for Island Development (INSULA)
  18. International Social Science Council (ISSC)
  19. International Theatre Institute (ITI)
  20. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)
  21. International Union of Technical Associations and Organizations
  22. Union of International Associations (UIA)
  23. World Association of Newspapers (WAN)
  24. World Federation of Engineering Organizations (WFEO)
  25. World Federation of UNESCO Clubs, Centres and Associations (WFUCA)

Institutes and centres

The institutes are specialized departments of the organization that support UNESCO's programme, providing specialized support for cluster and national offices.

Official list of UNESCO prizes

UNESCO currently awards 22 prizes60 in education, science, culture and peace:

Inactive prizes

International Days observed at UNESCO

61

Member states

As of October 2011, UNESCO counts 196 member states and 8 associate members.62 Some members are not independent states and some members have additional National Organizing Committees from some of their dependent territories.63 UNESCO state parties are most of the United Nations member states (except Liechtenstein), Cook Islands, Niue, and the State of Palestine.6465

Governing bodies

Director-General

Elections for the renewal of the position of Director-General took place in Paris from 7 to 23 September 2009. Eight candidates ran for the position, and 58 countries66 voted for them. The Executive Council gathered from 7 to 23 September, the vote itself beginning on the 17th. Irina Bokova was elected the new Director-General.

The list of the Directors-General of UNESCO since its establishment in 1946 is as follows:67

  1. United Kingdom Julian Huxley (1946–1948)
  2. Mexico Jaime Torres Bodet (1948–1952)
  3. United States John Wilkinson Taylor (acting 1952–1953)
  4. United States Luther Evans (1953–1958)
  5. Italy Vittorino Veronese (1958–1961)
  6. France René Maheu (1961–1974; acting 1961)
  7. Senegal Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow (1974–1987)
  8. Spain Federico Mayor Zaragoza (1987–1999)
  9. Japan Koïchiro Matsuura (1999–2009)
  10. Bulgaria Irina Bokova (2009– )

General Conference

This is the list of the sessions of UNESCO General Conference held since 1946:68

  • 1st session (Paris, 1946) – chaired by Léon Blum (France)
  • 2nd session (Mexico City, 1947) – chaired by Manuel Gual Vidal (Mexico)
  • 3rd session (Beirut, 1948) – chaired by Hamid Bey Frangie (Lebanon)
  • 1st extraordinary session (Paris, 1948)
  • 4th session (Paris, 1949) – chaired by Ronald Walker (Australia)
  • 5th session (Florence, 1950) – chaired by Count Stefano Jacini (Italy)
  • 6th session (Paris, 1951) – chaired by Howland Sargeant (United States)
  • 7th session (Paris, 1952) – chaired by Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (India)
  • 2nd extraordinary session (Paris, 1953)
  • 8th session (Montevideo, 1954) – chaired by Justino Zavala Muñiz (Uruguay)
  • 9th session (New Delhi, 1956) – chaired by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (India)
  • 10th session (Paris, 1958) – chaired by Jean Berthoin (France)
  • 11th session (Paris, 1960) – chaired by Akale-Work Abte-Wold (Ethiopia)
  • 12th session (Paris, 1962) – chaired by Paulo de Berrêdo Carneiro (Brazil)
  • 13th session (Paris, 1964) – chaired by Norair Sissakian (Soviet Union)
  • 14th session (Paris, 1966) – chaired by Bedrettin Tuncel (Turkey)
  • 15th session (Paris, 1968) – chaired by Willian Eteki-Mboumoua (Cameroon)
  • 16th session (Paris, 1970) – chaired by Atilio Dell'Oro Maini (Argentina)
  • 17th session (Paris, 1972) – chaired by Toru Haguiwara (Japan)
  • 3rd extraordinary session (Paris, 1973)
  • 18th session (Paris, 1974) – chaired by Magda Jóború (Hungary)
  • 19th session (Nairobi, 1976) – chaired by Taaita Toweett (Kenya)
  • 20th session (Paris, 1978) – chaired by Napoléon LeBlanc (Canada)
  • 21st session (Belgrade, 1980) – chaired by Ivo Margan (Yugoslavia)
  • 4th extraordinary session (Paris, 1982)
  • 22nd session (Paris, 1983) – chaired by Saïd Tell (Jordan)
  • 23rd session (Sofia, 1985) - chaired by Nikolaï Todorov (Bulgaria)
  • 24th session (Paris, 1987) – chaired by Guillermo Putzeys Alvarez (Guatemala)
  • 25th session (Paris, 1989) – chaired by Anwar Ibrahim (Malaysia)
  • 26th session (Paris, 1991) – chaired by Bethwell Allan Ogot (Kenya)
  • 27th session (Paris, 1993) – chaired by Ahmed Saleh Sayyad (Yemen)
  • 28th session (Paris, 1995) – chaired by Torben Krogh (Denmark)
  • 29th session (Paris, 1997) – chaired by Eduardo Portella (Brazil)
  • 30th session (Paris, 1999) – chaired by Jaroslava Moserova (Czech Republic)
  • 31st session (Paris, 2001) – chaired by Ahmad Jalali (Iran)
  • 32nd session (Paris, 2003) – chaired by Michael Omolewa (Nigeria)
  • 33rd session (Paris, 2005) – chaired by Musa bin Jaafar bin Hassan (Oman)
  • 34th session (Paris, 2007) – chaired by George N. Anastassopoulos (Greece)
  • 35th session (Paris, 2009) – chaired by Davidson Hepburn (Bahamas)
  • 36th session (Paris, 2011) – chaired by Katalin Bogyay (Hungary)
  • 37th session (Paris, 2013) - chaired by Hao Ping (China)

Offices

UNESCO has offices in many locations across the globe; its headquarters are located at Place de Fontenoy in Paris, France, now called the World Heritage Centre.69

UNESCO's field offices are categorized into four primary office types based upon their function and geographic coverage: cluster offices, national offices, regional bureaux and liaison offices.

Field offices by region

The following list of all UNESCO Field Offices is organized geographically by UNESCO Region and identifies the members states and associate members of UNESCO which are served by each office.70

Africa

Arab States

Asia and Pacific

Europe and North America

Latin America and the Caribbean

Carondelet Palace, Presidential Palace – with a double decker tourist bus. The Historic Center of Quito is one of the largest, least-altered and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas.71 This center was, together with the historic centre of Kraków in Poland, the first to be declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO on 18 September 1978.

Controversy and reform

New World Information and Communication order

UNESCO has been the centre of controversy in the past, particularly in its relationships with the United States, the United Kingdom, Singapore and the former Soviet Union. During the 1970s and 1980s, UNESCO's support for a "New World Information and Communication Order" and its MacBride report calling for democratization of the media and more egalitarian access to information was condemned in these countries as attempts to curb freedom of the press. UNESCO was perceived by some72 as a platform for communists and Third World dictators to attack the West, a stark contrast to accusations made by the USSR in the late 1940s and early 1950s.73 In 1984, the United States withheld its contributions and withdrew from the organization in protest, followed by the United Kingdom in 1985. Singapore took the opportunity to withdraw also at the end of 1985, citing rising membership fees.74 Following a change of government in 1997, the UK rejoined. The United States rejoined in 2003, followed by Singapore on 8 October 2007.

Israel

Israel was admitted to UNESCO in 1949, one year after its creation. In 1974, UNESCO stripped Israel of its membership on the grounds of alleged damage being done by Israel's archaeological excavations on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. UNESCO defended this decision with two statements in 1974 and 1975, but renewed Israel's membership in 1977, after the United States threatened to withhold $40 million of funding from the organization.75

In 2010, Israel designated the Cave of the Patriarchs, Hebron and Rachel's Tomb, Bethlehem as National Heritage Sites and announced restoration work, prompting criticism from the United States and protests from Palestinians.76 In October 2010, UNESCO's Executive Board voted to declare the sites as "al-Haram al-Ibrahimi/Tomb of the Patriarchs" and "Bilal bin Rabah Mosque/Rachel's Tomb" and stated that they were "an integral part of the occupied Palestinian Territories" and any unilateral Israeli action was a violation of international law.77 UNESCO described the sites as significant to "people of the Muslim, Christian and Jewish traditions", and accused Israel of highlighting only the Jewish character of the sites.78 Israel in turn accused UNESCO of "detach[ing] the Nation of Israel from its heritage", and accused it of being politically motivated.79 The Rabbi of the Western Wall claimed that Rachel's tomb had not previously been declared a holy Muslim site.80 Israel partially suspended ties with UNESCO. Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Danny Ayalon declared that the resolution was a "part of Palestinian escalation". Zevulun Orlev, chairman of the Knesset Education and Culture Committee, referred to the resolutions as an attempt to undermine the mission of UNESCO as a scientific and cultural organization that promotes cooperation throughout the world.8182

On 28 June 2011, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee, at Jordan's insistence, censured Israel's decision to demolish and rebuild the Mughrabi Gate Bridge in Jerusalem for safety reasons. Israel stated that Jordan had signed an agreement with Israel stipulating that the existing bridge must be razed for safety reasons; Jordan disputed the agreement, saying it was only signed under U.S. pressure. Israel was also unable to address the UNESCO committee over objections from Egypt.83

In January 2014, days before it was scheduled to open, UNESCO Director-General, Irina Bokova, "indefinitely postponed" and effectively cancelled an exhibit created by the Simon Wiesenthal Center entitled, "The People, The Book, the Land: The 3,500-year relationship between the Jewish people and the land of Israel." The event was scheduled to run from January 21 through January 30 in Paris. Bokova cancelled the event after representatives of Arab states at UNESCO argued that its display would "harm the peace process".84 The author of the exhibition, Professor Robert Wistrich of the Hebrew University's Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism, called the cancellation an "appalling act," and characterized Bukova's decision as "an arbitrary act of total cynicism and, really, contempt for the Jewish people and its history."85

Palestinian Authority

Palestinian Youth Magazine controversy

In February 2011, an article was published in a Palestinian youth magazine in which a teenage girl described one of her four role-models as Adolf Hitler. In December 2011, UNESCO, which partly funded the magazine, condemned the material and subsequently withdrew support.86

Islamic University of Gaza controversy

In 2012, UNESCO decided to establish a chair at the Islamic University of Gaza in the field of astronomy, astrophysics, and space sciences,87 fueling much controversy and criticism. Israel's foreign ministry expressed shock and criticized the move, and stated that the university supports Hamas (which Israel and other countries designate as a terrorist organization) and houses bomb laboratories for Hamas. The ministry called the university "a known greenhouse and breeding ground for Hamas terrorist".88

The university has been linked to Hamas in the past. However, the university head, Kamalain Shaath, defended UNESCO, stating that "the Islamic University is a purely academic university that is interested only in education and its development".899091 Israeli ambassador to UNESCO Nimrod Barkan planned to submit a letter of protest with information about the university's ties to Hamas, especially angry that this was the first Palestinian university that UNESCO chose to cooperate with. A senior foreign ministry official stated: "Before UNESCO gave a chair to the Technion and the Interdisciplinary Center [institutions in Haifa and Herzliya, respectively] they checked things with a magnifying glass. In Gaza no one checked."92 The Jewish organization B'nai B'rith criticized the move as well. B'nai B'rith international president Allan Jacobs said: "To so strongly associate an organization meant to promote peaceful goals with a terrorist organization is yet another contributor to the world body's tarnished reputation in the international community."93

Products or services

  • IDAMS – proprietary software package for processing and analysing numerical data developed, maintained and disseminated by UNESCO.

References and notes

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  2. ^ UNESCO's General Conference voted on 31 October 2011 "to admit Palestine as a member State". However, it notes that, for "its membership to take effect, Palestine must sign and ratify UNESCO's Constitution". "UNESCO » Media Services » General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO Member State". UNESCO. 
  3. ^ "Member States | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". UNESCO. 
  4. ^ "The Faroes become associated <ny specialized institutes and centres throughout the world". dead link
  5. ^ "UNDG Members". United Nations Development Group. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
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  7. ^ "UNESCO • General Conference; 34th; Medium-term Strategy, 2008–2013; 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  8. ^ League of Nations. Records of the Second Assembly. Plenary Meetings. 5 September-5 October 1921. Geneva. P. 313
  9. ^ "UNESCO. (1987). A Chronology of UNESCO: 1947–1987. Paris, December 1987. LAD.85/WS/4 Rev. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  10. ^ UNESCO. (1987). A Chronology.
  11. ^ THE WORK OF U.N.E.S.C.O. (Hansard, 26 January 1949). Hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  12. ^ "United Nations Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Held at the Institute of Civil Engineers, London, from 1 to 16 November 1945. ECO/Conf./29. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  13. ^ "Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 16 November 1945. United Nations Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Held at the Institute of Civil Engineers, London, from 1 to 16 November 1945. ECO/Conf./29. P. 93. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  14. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 1st Session. (1947). General Conference, First Session, held at UNESCO House, Paris, from 20 November to 10 December 1946. UNESCO/C/30 [1 C/Resolutions]. (Paris.) Item 14, p. 73. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  15. ^ UNESCO. General Conference, 8th Session. (1955). Records of the General Conference, Eighth Session, Montevideo, 1954: Resolutions. 8 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution II.1.2, p.12. UNESDOC database
  16. ^ "UNESCO. (1950). Statement by experts on race problems. Paris, 20 July 1950. UNESCO/SS/1. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  17. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 20th Session. (1979). Records of the General Conference, Twentieth Session, Paris, 24 October to 28 November 1978. 20 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3/1.1/2, p. 61. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  18. ^ UNESCO. Executive Board, 42nd Session. (1955). Report of the Director-General on the Activities of the Organization (March–November 1955). Paris, 9 November 1955. 42 EX/43. Part I Relations with Member States, paragraph 3.
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  21. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 2nd Session. (1948). Resolutions adopted by the General Conference during its second session, Mexico, November–December 1947. 2 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3.4.1, p. 17. UNESDOC database". Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  22. ^ "UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, and The World Bank. (1990). Final Report. World Conference on Education for All: Meeting Basic Education Needs. 5–9 March 1990, Jomtien, Thailand. (WCEFA Inter-agency Commission: New York). UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  23. ^ "UNESCO. (2000). The Dakar Framework for Action. Education for All: meeting our collective commitments (including six regional frameworks for action). World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26–28 April 2000. ED.2000/WS/27. (Paris). UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  24. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 21st Session. (1980). International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia: Report of the Executive Committee of the Campaign and of the Director-General. 26 August 1980. 21 C/82. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  25. ^ "Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris, 16 November 1972. UNESCO. General Conference, 17th Session. Records of the General Conference, Seventeenth Session, Paris, 17 October to 21 November 1972. Volume I: Resolutions, Recommendations. 17 C/Resolution 29. Chapter IX Conventions and Recommendations, p. 135. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  26. ^ "UNESCO. Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Second Session. Final Report. Washington, DC, 5–8 September 1978. CC-78/CONF.010/10 Rev. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  27. ^ "Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Paris, 17 October 2003. UNESCO. General Conference, 32nd Session. Records of the General Conference, Thirty-second Session, Paris, 29 September to 17 October 2003. Volume I: Resolutions. 32 C/Resolution 32. Chapter IV Programme for 2004–2005, Major Programme IV – Culture, p. 53. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  28. ^ "Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Paris, 20 October 2005. UNESCO. General Conference, 33rd Session. Records of the General Conference. Thirty-third Session, Paris, 3–21 October 2005. Volume I: Resolutions. 33 C/Resolution 41. Chapter V Programme for 2006–2007, p. 83. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  29. ^ "UNESCO. Executive Board, 26th Session. Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its twenty-sixth session. (7 June to 9 July 1951). Paris, 27 July 1951. 26 EX/Decisions. Item 7 Programme, Resolution 7.2.2.1, p. 9. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  30. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 3rd Session. (1949). Records of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Third Session. Beirut, 1948. Volume II: Resolutions. (UNESCO: Paris). 2 C/Resolution 3.7, page 23. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  31. ^ ""Use and conservation of the biosphere: Proceedings of the intergovernmental conference of experts on the scientific basis for rational use and conservation of the resources of the biosphere. Paris, 4–13 September 1968." (1970.) In Natural Resources Research, Volume X. SC.69/XIL.16/A. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  32. ^ "UNESCO. (1955). International Expert Meeting on Professional Training for Journalism. Unesco House, 9–13 April 1956. Purpose and Scope. Paris, 18 November 1955. UNESCO/MC/PT.1. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  33. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 19th Session. (1977). Approved Programme and budget for 1977–1978. Paris, February 1977. 19 C/5, p. 332, paragraphs 4154 and 4155. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  34. ^ "MacBride, S. (1980). Many voices, one world: towards a new, more just, and more efficient world information and communication order. (UNESCO: Paris). UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  35. ^ "UNESCO. (1996). UNESCO and an Information Society for All: a position paper. (UNESCO: Paris). CII-96/WS/4. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  36. ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 32nd Session. (2003). Communiqué: Ministerial Round Table on "Towards Knowledge Societies." (UNESCO Headquarters, 9 and 10 October 2003). 14 October 2003. 32 C/INF.26. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  37. ^ "General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO Member". 31 October 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  38. ^ Blomfield, Adrian (31 October 2011). "US withdraws Unesco funding after it accepts Palestinian membership". The Telegraph. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
  39. ^ Erlanger, Steven; Sayare, Scott (31 October 2011). "Unesco Approves Full Membership for Palestinians". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 
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