Washington metropolitan area
|Washington, D.C. metropolitan area
(Washington, D.C. – Arlington – Alexandria)
|— Metropolitan statistical area —|
|Country||United States of America|
|U.S. state/federal district||* District of Columbia
* West Virginia
|Principal cities||Washington, D.C, Arlington, Alexandria|
|• Metro||14,412 km2 (5,564.6 sq mi)|
|Elevation||0–716 m (0–2,350 ft)|
|• Metropolitan statistical area||5,860,342 (7th)|
|• Density||371.8/km2 (962.9/sq mi)|
|• Urban||4,586,770 (8th)|
|• CSA||9,331,587 (4th)|
|MSA & CSA = 2012, Urban & Densities = 2010|
|Time zone||ET (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EST (UTC-4)|
The Washington, D.C. metropolitan area is the metropolitan area centered on Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States of America. The area includes all of the federal district and parts of the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia, along with a small portion of West Virginia.
The U.S. Office of Management and Budget defines the area as the Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV metropolitan statistical area, a metropolitan statistical area used for statistical purposes by the United States Census Bureau and other agencies. The area includes as its principal cities Washington as well as the Virginia county of Arlington and city of Alexandria. The Office of Management and Budget also includes the metropolitan statistical area as part of the larger Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, which has a population of 9,331,587 as of the 2012 Census Estimate.3
The area is also sometimes referred to as the National Capital Region, particularly by federal agencies such as the Department of Homeland Security.4 The area in the region that is surrounded by Interstate 495 is also referred to as being "inside the Beltway".
The Washington metropolitan area is the most educated and by some measures, the most affluent metropolitan area in the United States.5 As of the 2012 U.S. Census Bureau estimate[update], the population of the Washington metropolitan area was estimated to be 5,860,342, making it the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the country.6
The U.S. Census Bureau divides the Washington statistical metropolitan area into two metropolitan divisions:7
- the Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV Metropolitan Division, comprising the majority of the metropolitan area
- the Silver Spring-Frederick-Rockville, MD Metropolitan Division, consisting of Montgomery and Frederick counties
Note that metropolitan area and metropolitan statistical area should not be confused with Metropolitan Division.
The area includes the following counties, districts, and independent cities:7
The following counties are categorized as part of the Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV metropolitan statistical area:
Although associated with the Washington metropolitan area, the following counties are categorized as part of the Baltimore–Towson, MD metropolitan statistical area:
Although associated with the Washington metropolitan area, the following county is categorized as part of the California-Lexington Park, MD Metropolitan Area:
- Arlington County
- Clarke County
- Culpeper County
- Fairfax County
- Fauquier County
- Loudoun County
- Prince William County
- Rappahannock County
- Spotsylvania County
- Stafford County
- Warren County
- City of Alexandria
- City of Fairfax
- City of Falls Church
- City of Fredericksburg
- City of Manassas
- City of Manassas Park
Founded in 1957, the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments (MWCOG) is a regional organization of 21 Washington-area local governments, as well as area members of the Maryland and Virginia state legislatures, the U.S. Senate, and the U.S. House of Representatives. MWCOG provides a forum for discussion and the development of regional responses to issues regarding the environment, transportation, public safety, homeland security, affordable housing, community planning, and economic development.9
The National Capital Region Transportation Planning Board, a component of MWCOG, is the federally-designated metropolitan planning organization for the metropolitan Washington area.10
The metropolitan area includes the following principal cities (most of which are not incorporated as cities; one, Arlington, is actually a county):
- Washington, D.C.
- Arlington, Virginia
- Alexandria, Virginia
- Bethesda, Maryland
- Bowie, Maryland
- Centreville, Virginia
- Chantilly, Virginia
- College Park, Maryland
- Fairfax, Virginia
- Falls Church, Virginia
- Frederick, Maryland
- Fredericksburg, Virginia
- Gaithersburg, Maryland
- Germantown, Maryland
- Herndon, Virginia
- Laurel, Maryland
- Leesburg, Virginia
- Manassas, Virginia
- Reston, Virginia
- Rockville, Maryland
- Silver Spring, Maryland
- Springfield, Virginia
- Suitland, Maryland
- Takoma Park, Maryland
- Tysons Corner, Virginia
- Vienna, Virginia
- Waldorf, Maryland
- Winchester, Virginia
|2008||68.0% 1,603,902||31.0% 728,916||1.0% 25,288|
|2004||61.0% 1,258,743||38.0% 785,144||1.4% 19,735|
|2000||58.5% 1,023,089||37.9% 663,590||3.6% 62,437|
|1996||57.0% 861,881||37.0% 558,830||6.0% 89,259|
|1992||53.0% 859,889||34.1% 553.369||12.9% 209,651|
|1988||50.4% 684,453||48.6% 659,344||1.0% 14,219|
|1984||51.0% 653,568||48.5% 621,377||0.4% 5,656|
|1980||44.7% 484,590||44.6% 482,506||11.1% 115,797|
|1976||54.2% 590,481||44.9% 488,995||1.0% 10,654|
|1972||44.2% 431,257||54.8% 534,235||1.1% 10,825|
|1968||49.4% 414,345||39.1% 327,662||11.5% 96,701|
|1964||69.8% 495,490||30.2% 214,293||0.1% 462|
|1960||52.5% 204,614||47.3% 184,499||0.1% 593|
The relative strength of the major political parties within the region is shown by the presidential election results since 1960, as presented in the table to the right.citation needed
The area has been a magnet for international immigration since the late 1960s. It is also a magnet for internal migration (persons moving from one region of the U.S. to another).11dubious Census estimates show that persons of post-1965 immigrant stock will likely represent 25% of the region's population by 2010, forming a bigger population bloc than native blacks for the first time.12
Racial composition of the Washington, D.C. area:
- 2011 American Community Survey
- Non-Hispanic White : 48.2%
- Black or African American : 25.3%
- Hispanic or Latino : 14.1%
- Asian : 9.3%
- Mixed and Other : 3.1%
- 2010 U.S. Census
- White : 54.8%
- Black : 25.8%
- Asian : 9.3%
- Hispanic : 13.8% (4.1% Salvadoran, 2.1% Mexican, 0.9% Guatemalan, 0.9% Puerto Rican, 0.8% Peruvian, 0.7% Honduran, 0.7% Bolivian)
- Mixed and Other : 3.7%
- White : 67.8%
- Black : 26.0%
- Asian : 2.5%
- Hispanic : 2.8%
- Mixed and Other : 0.9%
The Washington metropolitan area has ranked as the highest-educated metropolitan area in the nation for four decades.14 As of the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, the three most educated places with 200,000 people or more in Washington–Arlington–Alexandria by bachelor's degree attainment (population 25 and over) are Arlington, Virginia (68.0%), Fairfax County, Virginia (58.8%), and Montgomery County, Maryland (56.4%).15 Forbes magazine stated in its 2008 "America's Best- And Worst-Educated Cities" report: "The D.C. area is less than half the size of L.A., but both cities have around 100,000 Ph.D.'s."16
The Washington, D.C. metro area has held the top spot in the American College of Sports Medicine's annual American Fitness Index ranking of the United States' 50 most populous metropolitan areas for two years running. The report cites, among other things, the high average fitness level and healthy eating habits of residents, the widespread availability of health care and facilities such as swimming pools, tennis courts, and parks, low rates of obesity and tobacco use relative to the national average, and the high median household income as contributors to the city's community health.17
In recent yearswhen? the Washington metropolitan area has overtaken the San Francisco Bay Area as the highest-income metropolitan area in the nation.5 The median household income of the region is US$72,800. The two highest median household income counties in the nation – Loudoun and Fairfax County, Virginia – are components of the MSA (and #3 is Howard County, officially in Baltimore's sphere but strongly connected with Washington's); measured in this way, Alexandria ranks 10th among municipalities in the region – 11th if Howard is included – and 23rd in the entire United States. 12.2% of Northern Virginia's 881,136 households, 8.5% of suburban Maryland's 799,300 households, and 8.2% of Washington's 249,805 households have an annual income in excess of $200,000, compared to 3.7% nationally.18
According to a report by the American Human Development Project, women in the Washington metropolitan area are ranked as having the highest income and educational attainment amongst the 25 most populous metropolitan areas in the nation, while Asian American women in the region had the highest life expectancy, at 92.3 years.19
The various agencies of the Federal Government employ over 140,000 professionals in the Washington D.C. area. A sizable number in the Washington D.C. area work for defense and civilian contracting companies that conduct business directly with the Federal Government (many of these firms are referred to as 'Beltway Bandits' under the local vernacular). As a result, the Federal Government provides the underlying basis of the economy in the region. However, the Washington D.C. area is increasingly home to a diverse segment of businesses not directly related to the Federal Government.citation needed
The Washington, D.C. area has the largest science and engineering work force of any metropolitan area in the nation in 2006 according to the Greater Washington Initiative at 324,530, ahead of the combined San Francisco Bay Area work force of 214,500, and Chicago metropolitan area at 203,090, citing data from U.S. Census Bureau, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Claritas Inc., and other sources.5
The Washington, D.C. area was ranked as the second best High-Tech Center in a statistical analysis of the top 100 Metropolitan areas in the United States by American City Business Journals in May 2009, behind the Silicon Valley and ahead of the Boston metropolitan area.22 Fueling the metropolitan area's ranking was the reported 241,264 tech jobs in the region, a total eclipsed only by New York, Los Angeles, and the combined San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland regions, as well as the highest master's or doctoral degree attainment among the 100 ranked metropolitan areas.22 A Dice.com report showed that the Washington–Baltimore area had the second-highest number of tech jobs listed: 8,289, after the New York metro area with 9,195 jobs.23
The Washington D.C. area is home to hundreds of major research universities, think tanks, and non-profit organizations. Additionally, Washington, D.C. is a top tourism destination as flocks of Americans and foreigners from around the world visit the museums and monuments of the Capital city year round with the peak season being during the Spring and Summer months of April through August. Moreover, the Washington D.C. area attracts tens of major conferences and conventions each year which also contribute greatly to the region's economy.citation needed
Changes in house prices for the D.C. area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 10-city composite index of the value of the U.S. residential real estate market.
Not limited to its proximity to the National Institutes of Health, Maryland's Washington suburbs are a major center for biotechnology. Prominent local biotech companies include MedImmune, The Institute for Genomic Research, Human Genome Sciences, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.citation needed
Many defense contractors are based in the region to be close to the Pentagon in Arlington. Local defense contractors include Lockheed Martin, the largest, as well as Raytheon, General Dynamics, BAE Systems, Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), CACI, and Orbital Sciences Corporation. Northrup Grumman is to move its headquarters to the region by the summer of 2011.24
The following is a list of companies headquartered in the Washington metropolitan area with revenues in excess of $5 billion,2526 including companies that are in the process of relocating to the area and excluding those that are leaving. Seven of the companies are located in Tysons Corner but use McLean addresses. Many large firms are based in Montgomery County, including Discovery Communications, Coventry Health Care, Lockheed Martin, Marriott International, Host Hotels & Resorts, Travel Channel, Ritz-Carlton, Robert Louis Johnson Companies (RLJ Cos), Choice Hotels, MedImmune, TV One, BAE Systems Inc, Hughes Network Systems, and GEICO.
|AES Corporation||Virginia (Arlington)||$17.1|
|Booz Allen Hamilton||Virginia (McLean)||$5.1|
|Coventry Health Care||Maryland (Bethesda)||$11.6|
|Capital One||Virginia (McLean)||$19.0|
|Computer Sciences Corporation||Virginia (Falls Church)||$16.1|
|Danaher Corporation||District of Columbia||$13.2|
|Fannie Mae||District of Columbia||$153.8|
|Freddie Mac||Virginia (McLean)||$98.4|
|Gannett Company||Virginia (McLean)||$5.6|
|General Dynamics||Virginia (Falls Church)||$32.5|
|Geico||Maryland (Chevy Chase)||$9.2|
|Hilton Worldwide||Virginia (McLean)||$7.5|
|Lockheed Martin||Maryland (Bethesda)||$46.9|
|Marriott International||Maryland (Bethesda)||$11.7|
|Mars, Incorporated||Virginia (McLean)||$28.0|
|Northrop Grumman||Virginia (Falls Church)||$34.8|
|NII Holdings||Virginia (Reston)||$5.6|
|Pepco Holdings||District of Columbia||$7.0|
|This section requires expansion. (January 2013)|
The 2005 Base Realignment and Closure resulted in a significant shuffling of military, civilian, and defense contractor employees in the Washington D.C. area. The largest individual site impacts of the time are as follows:27
- Fort Belvoir gained 11,858 employees, primarily as a result of the relocation of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency into a massive new headquarters within the fort.
- Fort Lee gained 7,344 mostly military employees.
- Fort Meade gained 5,361 employees, primarily as a result of the expansion of the National Security Agency.
- Walter Reed Army Medical Center lost 5,630 employees as part of its realignment. It was later closed and consolidated into Walter Reed National Military Medical Center.
BRAC 2005 was the largest infrastructure expansion by the Army Corps of Engineers since World War II, resulting in the Mark Center, tallest building they have ever constructed, as well as National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Campus East, which at 2.4 million square feet is the largest building the Corps have constructed since the Pentagon.28
- Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD), located in Dulles, Virginia – the busiest in the region
- Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA), located in Arlington County, Virginia – the closest to Washington
- Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI), located in Linthicum, Maryland – in the Baltimore metropolitan area
- Washington Metro – DC, MD, VA (Rapid transit)
- MARC Train – DC, MD, WV (Commuter rail)
- Virginia Railway Express – DC, VA (Commuter rail)
- Amtrak – DC, MD, VA, WV (Commuter rail, Inter-city rail)
- DC Circulator – Washington, D.C.
- Metrobus – Washington metropolitan area
- Ride On – Montgomery County, Maryland
- TheBus – Prince George's County, Maryland
- ART – Arlington County, Virginia
- DASH – Alexandria, Virginia
- Fairfax Connector – Fairfax County, Virginia
- CUE Bus – Fairfax, Virginia
- PRTC – Prince William County, Manassas and Manassas Park
- TransIT - Frederick County, Maryland
- FRED – Fredericksburg, Spotsylvania and Stafford
Listing of the professional sports teams in the Washington metropolitan area:
- National Basketball Association (NBA)
- Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA)
- Major League Baseball (MLB)
- Atlantic League of Professional Baseball (ALPB)
- National Football League (NFL)
- National Hockey League (NHL)
- Major League Soccer (MLS)
- Major League Lacrosse (outdoor) (MLL)
- World Team Tennis (WTT)
The Washington metropolitan area is home to USA Today, C-SPAN, PBS, and BET. The two main newspapers are The Washington Post and The Washington Times. Local television channels include WRC-TV 4 (NBC), WTTG 5 (FOX), WJLA 7 (ABC), WUSA 9 (CBS), WDCA 20 (MyNetworkTV), WETA-TV 26 (PBS), WPXW 43 (Ion), and WDCW 50 (CW). NewsChannel 8 is a 24/7 local news provider available only to cable subscribers. Radio stations serving the area include: WETA-FM, WIHT, WMAL-AM, and WTOP.
- 202 – Washington, D.C.
- 571/703 – Northern Virginia including the cities of Alexandria, Fairfax, and Falls Church as well as Arlington, Fairfax, and Loudoun counties (571 created 1 March 2000; 703 in October, 1947).
- 240/301 – northern and western Maryland
- 540 – Fredericksburg/Spotsylvania
|Washington, D.C.Note 1|
|Bangkok||Thailand||1962, renewed 2002|
|Dakar||Senegal||1980, renewed 2006|
|Beijing||China||1984, renewed 2004|
|Brussels||Belgium||1985, renewed 2002|
|ParisNote 2||France||2000, renewed 2005|
|Pretoria||South Africa||2002, renewed 2008|
|DundeeNote 3||United Kingdom|
|Arlington County, Virginia|
|San Miguel||El Salvador|
|RunnymedeNote 5||United Kingdom|
|Fairfax County, Virginia|
|Songpa-guNote 7||South Korea||2009|
|Falls Church, Virginia|
|District Heights, Maryland|
|La Plata, Maryland|
- dead link
- Paris is a "Partner City" due to the one Sister City policy of that commune.
- "Historic Alexandria | City of Alexandria, VA". Oha.alexandriava.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Exploration phase
- Town twin 
- Rejected by Washington due to not being a national capital.
- "Sisterhood Partnerships". Fairfaxcounty.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- List of people from the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area
- List of U.S. metropolitan statistical areas in Virginia
- Potomac primary
- Northeast megalopolis
- P.J. Orvetti (July 30, 2010), Welcome to the DMV, 4 NBC Washington (NBCUniversal, Inc.), retrieved April 15, 2012
- (Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas)
- "National Capital Region – Office of National Capital Region Coordination". Department of Homeland Security. December 21, 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-12-12. Retrieved 2008-01-09.
- "Washington area richest, most educated in US: report". Washingtonpost.com. 2006-06-08. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009dead link
- "Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses ofthe Delineations ofThese Areas". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. February 20, 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-09.
- "Glossary of Housing Words and Terms". Housingvirginia.org. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "About Us". MWCOG.org. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "– Transportation – TPB". Mwcog.org. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "Metro Magnets for Minorities and Whites: Melting Pots, the New Sunbelt, and the Heartland" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Population Estimatesdead link
- dead link
- "Washington region ranks as the best-educated in the country". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "2006–2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates". Census.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "America's Best- And Worst-Educated Cities". Forbes.com. 2008-11-24. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "Washington, DC (Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV MSA) 2010 AFI Report" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-26.
- "ACS 2005–2007". Census.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "Women'S Well-Being" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "High-Rises Approved That Would Dwarf D.C". Washingtonpost.com. 2007-05-06. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "List of tallest buildings in DC, MD, VA, WV". Skyscraperpage.com. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "The top 100 tech centers". Bizjournals. 2009-05-11. Retrieved 2010-03-03.dead link
- Nathan Eddy (2012-03-13). "Tech Jobs Flourish in Silicon Valley, but Other Regions Offer Opportunities: Dice Report". Eweek.com. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Censer, Marjorie (July 30, 2010). "Defense firm Northrop Grumman's second-quarter profit rose nearly 81 percent". The Washington Post.
- "FORTUNE 500 Our annual ranking of America's largest corporations". Money.cnn.com. 2011-05-23. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "America's Largest Private Companies". Forbes.com. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Appendix C BRAC 2005 Closure and Realignment Impacts by State
- BRAC 2005: on time, on budget in Northeast
- OMB Bulletin No. 05-02
- Urban Areas of Virginia
- May 2006 Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates; Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV Metropolitan Division
- May 2005 Metropolitan Area Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates; Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV Metropolitan Division
- Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV MSA Population and Components of Change