Yakshagana (yakṣagāna, [jɐkʃəɡaːnɐ]) is a theater form that combines dance, music, dialogue, costume, make-up, and stage techniques with a unique style and form. This theater style, resembling Western opera, is mainly found in the coastal districts and the Malenadu region of India. Yakshagana is traditionally presented from dusk to dawn.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Music genre
- 3 History
- 4 Evolution
- 5 Variations and sub-genres
- 6 Important components
- 7 Instruments
- 8 Artists
- 9 Training and research
- 10 Outside India
- 11 Mela or troupes
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Yakshagana literally means the song (gana) of the yaksha, (nature spirits).1 Yakshagana is the scholastic name (used for the last 200 years) for art forms formerly known as kēḷike, āṭa, bayalāṭa, and daśāvatāra (Kannada: ದಶಾವತಾರ). It is believed to have evolved from pre-classical music and theater during the period of the Bhakti movement.2 It is sometimes simply called "the play" (ಆಟ) in both Kannada and Tulu.3
Yakshagana is a separate genre of music, independent of Karnataka Sangeetha and the Hindustani music of India. It is believed to have survived as an indigenous phenomenon only in parts of Karnataka and Kerala.4
A typical Yakshagana performance consists of background music played by a group of musicians (known as the himmela); and a dance and dialog group (known as the mummela), who together enact poetic epics onstage. The himmela is made up of a lead singer (bhagawata)—who also directs the production—and is referred to as the "first actor" (modalane vesha). Additional himmela members are players of traditional musical instruments, such as the maddale (hand drum), the pungi (pipe), the harmonium (organ), and the chande (loud drums). The music is based on ragas, which are characterized by rhythmic patterns called mattu and tala (or musical meter in Western music). Yakshagana talas are believed to be based on patterns which later evolved into the Carnatic talas.citation needed
A Yakshagana performance typically begins in the twilight hours, with an initial beating of the drums of several fixed compositions, called abbara or peetike. This may last for up to an hour before the actors finally arrive on the stage. The actors wear resplendent costumes, head-dresses, and face paints.5
A performance usually depicts a story from the "Kavya" (epic poems) and the "Puranas" (ancient Hindu texts). It consists of a story teller (the bhagvatha) who narrates the story by singing (which includes prepared character dialogues) as the actors dance to the music, portraying elements of the story as it is being narrated. All components of Yakshagana—including the music, the dance, and the dialog—are improvised. Depending on the ability and scholarship of the actors, there will be variations in dances as well as the amount of dialog. It is not uncommon for actors to get into philosophical debates or arguments without falling out of character. The acting in Yakshagana can be best categorized as method acting.citation needed The performances have drawn comparison to the Western tradition of opera. Traditionally, Yakshagana will run all night.
Yakshagana is popular in the districts of Uttara Kannada, Udupi, Dakshina Kannada, Shimoga and Kasaragod.6 Yakshagana has become popular in Bangalore in recent years, particularly in the rainy season, when there are few other forms of entertainment possible in the coastal districts.3
Yakshagana can refer to a style of writing, as well as the written material itself. There are questions on whether this writing system originated in Telugu literature. It was probably used for poems enacted in bayalaata (or open theater drama), such as the ballads of Koti and Chennayya." Yakshagana in its present form is believed to have been strongly influenced by the Vaishnava Bhakti movement.
The first written evidence regarding Yakshagana is found on an inscription at the Lakshminarayana Temple in Kurugodu, Somasamudra, Bellary District, and dated 1556 CE, a copy of which is available at the University of Madras.7 The inscription mentions a land donated to the performers of the art, so as to enable people to enjoy tala maddale programs at the temple. Another important piece of evidence is available in the form of a poem authored by Ajapura Vishnu, the Virata Parva, inscribed on a palm-leaf found at Ajapura (present day Brahmavara).7 Another historic palm-leaf manuscript, dated 1621 CE, describes Sabhalakshana.7
Yakshagana bears some resemblance to other members of the 'traditional theater family:' Ankhia Nata (found in Assam); Jathra (in Bengal); Chau (Bihar, Bengal); Prahlada Nata (Orissa); Veedhinatakam & Chindu (Andhra); Terukoothu Bhagawathamela (Tamil Nadu), and Kathakkali (Kerala). However, some researchers have argued that Yakshagana is markedly different from this group.citation needed
Experts have placed the origin of Yakshagana somewhere in the period of the 11th to 16th centuries CE.8 Yakshagana was an established performance art form by the time of the noted Yakshagana poet, Parthi Subba (c. 1600).4 His father, Venkata, is attributed by some to be the author of the great Hindu epic, Ramayana, although historian Shivarama Karantha counters these claims (made most notably by historians Muliya Thimmappa and Govinda Pai)9 and argues that it is Subba, who was in fact its author.4 Venkata is the probable founder of the tenkuthittu (southern) style of the art.citation needed
Troupe centers, such as Koodlu and Kumbala in the Kasaragod District, and Amritheshwari, Kota near Kundapura, claim to have had troupes three to four centuries ago, indicating that the art form almost certainly had begun to take shape by circa 1500.
The Yakshagana form of today is the result of a slow evolution, drawing its elements from ritual theater, temple arts, secular arts (such as Bahurupi), royal courts of the past, and the artists' imaginations—all interwoven over a period of several hundred years.8
Early Yakshagana poets included Ajapura Vishnu, Purandaradasa, Parthi Subba, and Nagire Subba. King Kanteerava Narasaraja Wodeyar II (1704–1714) authored 14 Yakshaganas in various languages in the Kannada script.10a Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar (1794–1868) also wrote several Yakshagana prasanga, including Sougandhika Parinaya.10b Noted poet, Muddana, composed several Yakshagana prasangasa, including the very popular Rathnavathi Kalyana.
In the 19th century, Yakshagana began to move away from the strict traditional forms. Practitioners of the day produced a number of new compositions. Also, a large number of troupes arose across coastal Karnataka.
The early 20th century saw the birth of 'tent' troupes, giving performances to audiences made up of common people who were admitted by ticket. These troupes were responsible for the commercialization of Yakshagana. The genre saw major changes in form and organization. Electrical lights replaced the gas lights; seating arrangements improved; the inclusion of folk epics, Sanskrit dramas, and fictional stories formed the modern thematic base of the discipline. Popular entertainment became the criterion, replacing the historic classical presentations. Tulu, the language of the southern part of the D.K. district was introduced; increasing popularity with the common people.
At this time, writer Kota Shivaram Karanth, experimented with the dance form by introducing Western musical instrumentation. He reduced the time of a Yakshagana performances from 12 hours to under three hours, incorporated movie plot lines, and added Shakespearean themes.11 Today, female artists perform in Yakshagana shows.
Yakshagana is related to other performance art forms prevalent in other parts of Karnataka and the neighboring states of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Maharastra.12 Yakshagana defies simple classification into categories such as folk, classical, or rural. It can be included in each or all of these, depending upon the rules used for classification. It is more varied and dynamic than most dance forms. Yakshagana can, however, be classified as one of many traditional dance forms. While it prevails primarily in the coastal areas of Karnataka, other dance forms (such as Doddata) are today often called by the same name. Several forms of traditional theater – Mudalpaya (of southern Karnataka); Doddata (of northern Karnataka); Kelike (on the border with Andhra Pradesh); and Ghattadakore (of Kollegal—in the Chamarajnagar District), may be included in this category. Among them, the Ghattadakore is a direct branch of the coastal form of Yakshagana, while Mudalapaya is the most closely connected form.citation needed
Scholars have classified Yakshagana broadly into several types:
- Moodalopaya Yakshagana; includes eastern areas of Karnataka (such as Channarayapattna and Arsikere Taluks of the Hassan District), Nagamangala Taluk of the Mandya District, Turuvekere Taluk of the Tumkur District, Hiriyuru, Challakere of Chitradurga District and North Karnataka.15
- Paduvlopaya Yakshagana comprises the western parts of extended Karnataka (including Kasaragod Dakshina Kannada, Udupi and Uttara Kannada).
- Tenkutittu ( includes areas Kasaragod (Kerala), Mangalore District, Udupi, Sampaaje, Sulliya, Puttur, Bantwala, Belthangady, Karkala, etc.)
- Badagutittu (Udupi to Kundapura area, Uttara Kannada district)
- Badabadagutittu/Uttara Kannadatittu (extreme north parts of Uttara Kannada)15
The Badagutittu style is prevalent in the northern parts of South Canara (from Padubidri to Byndoor and the north Kanara District). The Badagutittu school of Yakshagana places more emphasis on facial expressions, matugarike (dailogues), and dances appropriate for the character depicted in the episode. It makes use of a typical Karnataka chande.16
The Badagutittu style was popularized by Shivram Karanth's, "Yakshagana Mandira," presented at Saligrama Village in Dakshina Kannada as a shorter—more modern—form of Yakshagana.16 Keremane Shivarama Hegde, the founder of the Yakshagana troupe, Idagunji Mahaganapathi Yakshagana Mandali, is an exponent of the Badagutittu style of Yakshagana. He is also the first Yakshagana artist to receive the Rashtrapati Award from the president of India.
One of the traditional variations, the tenkutittu style, is prevalent in Dakshina Kannada, Kasaragod District, western parts of Coorg (Sampaje), and few areas of Udupi district. The influence of Karnatic Music is apparent in tenkutittu, as evidenced by the type of maddale used and in bhaagavathike. Yakshagana is influenced more by folk art blended with classical dance aspects. In tenkutittu, three iconic set of colors are used: the Raajabanna, the Kaatbanna, and the Sthreebanna.
The himmela in the tenkutittu style is more cohesive to the entire production. Rhythms of the chande and maddale coupled with the chakrataala and jaagate of the bhaagavatha create an excellent symphonic sound. The dance form in tenkutittu strikes the attention of the audience by 'Dheengina' or 'Guttu'. Performers often do dhiginas (jumping spins in the air) and will continuously spin (sometimes) hundreds of times. Tenkutittu is noted for its incredible dance steps; its high flying dance moves; and its extravagant rakshasas (demons).
Tenkutittu has remained a popular form and has its own audience outside the coastal areas. The dharmasthala and kateelu durgaparameshwari melas (the two most popular melas) have helped to popularize this form. Several creative tenkutittu plays have been composed by noted scholars, such as Amritha Someshwara.17
There were more than 30 string-puppet troupes in the undivided Dakshina Kannada district during the period 1910–1915 in places such as Basrur, Barkur, Kokkarne, Mudabidri.18 The presentation of the puppetry in Yakshagana style is highly stylized and adheres strictly to the norms and standards of Yakshagana. The puppets (generally 18 inches high) wear costumes similar to those worn by live actors of Yakshagana, and have the same elaborate make-up, colorful headgear, and heavy jewelery.19 The puppeteer is known as the Suthradhara. The content in the Yakshagana puppetry, is also mainly drawn from the ancient epics.1819
Yakshagana puppetry has existed for centuries. The modern form of the art, however, was largely molded by the brothers Laxman, Narasimha, and Manjappa Kamath; who hailed from Uppinakudru village, Kundapur taluk. Devanna Padmanabha Kamath, the grandson of Laxman Kamath infused new life into the art and performed shows all over India. Later, Kogga Devanna Kamath improved this sub-genre even further, being recognized with the Tulsi Samman and Sangeet Natak Akademi Awards. His son, Bhaskar Kogga Kamath, is currently performing shows while training others in the art of Yakshagana puppetry.20 K. V. Ramesh is a leading puppeteer from Kasaragod. He leads the Yakshagana puppet troupe Shri Gopalakrishna Yakshagana Gombeyata Sangha.citation needed
The second half of the 20th century saw experiments and adoptions of this art into other venues. One notable effort was that of Shivarama Karantha, who produced and exhibited Yakshagana ballet, using and training local artists.2122 Some of the changes brought about by Karanth, however, attracted criticism.23 One legal decision even banned any public performance of his experimental ballets being billed as "Yakshagana."citation needed
Yakshagana Rāga refers to melodic framework used in Yakshagana. It is based on pre-classical melodic forms that comprise a series of five or more musical notes upon which a melody is founded. Ragas in Yakshagana are closely associated with a set of melodic forms called mattu. In the Yakshagana tradition, rāgas are associated with different times of the night throughout which the Yakshagana is performed.
Yakshagana Tala (Sanskrit tāla) are frameworks for rhythms in Yakshagana that are determined by a poetry style called Yakshagana Padya. Tala also decide how a composition is to be enacted by the dancers. It is similar to tala in other forms of Indian music, but differs from them structurally. Each composition is set to one or more talas, rendered by the himmela percussion artists play.217
Yakshagana poetry (Yakshagana Padya or Yakshagana Prasanga) is a collection of poems written to form a music drama. The poems are composed in well known Kannada metres, using a frame work of ragas and talas. Yakshagana also has its own metre (or prosody). The collection of Yakshagana poems forming a musical drama is called a Prasanga. The oldest surviving parasanga books are believed to have been composed in the 15th century.24 But many compositions have been lost to time. There is evidence showing that oral compositions were in use before the 15th century. The narratives of the surviving historic Yakshagana Prasangas are now often printed in paperback.14
Yakshagna costumes are rich in color. The costumes (or vesha) in Kannada depend on characters depicted in the play (prasanga). It also depends on the Yakshagana style (tittu).
Traditionally, Badagutittu Yakshagana ornaments are made out of light wood, pieces of mirror, and colored stones.25 Lighter materials, such as thermocol, are sometimes used today, although ornaments are still predominantly made of woodwork.
Yakshagana costumes consist of headgear (Kirita or Pagade), Kavacha that decorates the chest, Buja Keerthi (armlets) that decorate the shoulders, and belts (Dabu)—all made up of light wood and covered with golden foil. Mirror work on these ornaments helps to reflect light during shows and add more color to the costumes. Armaments are worn on a vest and cover the upper half of the body. The lower half is covered with kachche, which come in unique combinations of red, yellow, and orange checks. Bulky pads are used under the kachche, making the actors' proportions different in size from normal.
The character, Bannada Vesha, is used to depict monsters. This often involves detailed facial makeup taking three to four hours to complete. Males play the female roles in traditional Yakshagana. However, more recently, yakshagana has seen female artists, who perform in both male and female roles.
The character of Stree Vesha makes use of sari and other decorative ornaments.
The maddale is a percussion instrument and, along with the chande, is the primary rhythmic accompaniment in the Yakshagana ensemble.
Yakshagana bells or cymbals, are a pair of finger bells made of a special alloy (traditionally five metal). They are made to fit the tone of the bhagawatha's voice. Singers carry more than one set, as finger bells are available in different keys, thus enabling them to sing in different pitches. They help create and guide the background music in Yakshagana.
The Chande is a drum and, along with the maddale, is an important rhythmic accompaniment in the Yakshagana ensemble.
As most troupes are associated with temples, training in the art has been confined to temple premises. The Govinda Pai Research Institute, located at MGM College, runs a Yakshagana Kalakendra in Udupi trains youngsters in this ancient dance form. It also does research work on language, rituals, and dance art forms.26 Srimaya Yakshagana Training Center also trains Yakshagana students which was founded by Shri Keremane Shambhu Hegde.
Yakshagana is finding new popularity outside India. Amateur troupes have emerged in California, USA and Ontario, Canada. Yakshamitra in Canada, Yakshagana Kalavrinda, Yaksharanga in the U.S. are a few examples of these international troupes.
Yakshamitra performs in Toronto, Canada, and was the first to use local live music himmela for their performances. The other troupes usually use a recorded background himmela for their shows.
Yakshagana Kalavrinda performs on the east coast of the U.S.
Yaksharanga in the USA started after the visit of Yakshagana artist, Sri Chittani Ramachandra Hegde. His performance at the age of 74 was so inspiring that art lovers decided to continue his art thousands of miles away from its home. Sri Kidayuru Ganesh, who accompanied Sri Chittani, stayed back for a couple of months to train a new generation of Yakshagana artists. The initial result was a performance of Yakshagana “Sudanvarjuna Kalaga”. Hegde won the Padmashri Award in 2012 for his lifetime contribution to the art. Yaksharanga has since performed many shows around California.
A Yakshagana Troupe, "Shri Idagunji Mahaganapati Yakshagana Mandali, Keremane," headed by Shri Keremane Shambhu Hegde and Shri Keremane Shivanand Hegde, toured the U.S., and performed more than 22 programs throughout North America. The troupe visited 12 countries.
There are about 30 full fledged professional troupes, and about 200 amateur troupes in Yakshagana. Professional troupes go on tour between November to May, giving about 180-200 shows. There are about one thousand professional artists and many more amateurs. Further there are off season shows during the wet season, the anniversary shows, school and college students Yakshagana and of course the Talamaddale performances. Yakshagana commercial shows witness 12,000 performances per year in Karnataka generating a turnover of Rs. Six crore.2728
|Town/Village||Date Started||Date of closure(if any)||Main sponsor||Thenkuthittu(T) or Badaguthittu(B)||Free or Ticket|
|Kumble||19th centurycitation needed||T||Donation|
|Karki Hasyagara Mela||1850s7|
|Kamalashile Mela7||still performing||Sri Braahmi Durgaparameshwari Temple||B||Donation|
|Halady||1980s||Still performing||Halady temple||B||Free/donation|
|Amrutheswari||Early 20th Centurycitation needed||Still performing||Amrutheswari temple||B||Ticket|
|Dharmasthala Mela||19th Centurycitation needed||still performing||Sri Kshetra Dharmasthala||T||Devotees' donation|
|Kudlu Kutyala Mela||T|
|Ranjadakate mela||B||From Shimoga Dist.|
|Goli Garadi7||Koti Chennaya Garadi||B||Sasthana|
|Kateel Mela||1867 29||still performing||Kateel Shri Durgaparameshwari Temple||T|
|Hosanagara Mela||still performing||T|
|Perduru Mela7||1983-84||still performing||Sri Anathapadhmanaabha Temple||B||Ticket|
|Maranakatte mela7||still performing||Sri Brahmalingeshwara Temple||B||Donation|
|Mandarthi Mela7||1950s||still performing||Durgaparameswari Temple||B||Devotees' donation|
|Bappanadu Mela||Bappanadu Durgaparameshwari Temple, Mulki||T|
- This King of Mysore was deaf and dumb, but knew several languages.
- Mysore kings often gave patronage to various forms of performance artists
- "yaksha". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-09-06.
- Prof. Sridhara Uppura; 1998; Yakshagana and Nataka Diganta; publications.
- "The changing face of Yakshagana". Online webpage of The Hindu (Chennai, India: The Hindu). Retrieved 2007-09-06.
- Dr. Shivarama Karantha; Yakshagana Bayalaata; Harsha Publications; 1963; Puttur, South Canara, India.
- Yakshagana; accessed November 2, 2013
- Martha Bush Ashton, Bruce Christie (1977). Yakshagana, a Dance Drama of India. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. p. 21,22. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
- "The Hindu- Focus on rural art". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2005-12-23. Retrieved 2007-09-06.
- Note: This due to what Karantha describes as procedural lapses in their research and conclusions. Karantha bases his claim on the fact that Venkata was reported to be a bhagawatha (singer) himself, and is believed to have founded his own troupe.
- Pranesh, Meera Rajaram (2003) . Musical Composers during Wodeyar Dynasty (1638–1947 A.D.). Bangalore: Vee Emm. pp. 37, 38.
- Hapgood, Robert; 1983; Macbeth Distilled: A Yakshagana Production in Delhi; "Shakespeare Quarterly;" Vol. 31; No. 3; Autumn, 1980; pp. 439-440.
- Growing with Tradition; 14 October 2005 article; Hindu.com; accessed November 2013
- "3-day festival to celebrate Karanth's birth centenary". The Times of India. 2002-12-20. Retrieved 2007-09-06.
- Brandon, James R. (ed.). The Cambridge guide to Asian Theatre (1997 (2nd reprint) ed.). Cambridge,UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 115, 116. ISBN 9780521588225.
- Dr. Achar, Palthady Ramakrishna; 2004; Janapada Parisara; Puttur; "Supriya Prakashana;" p.68
- Classical Indian Dance Directory; Narthaki.com; accessed November 2013.
- Dr. A Sundara. "Pre historic art in Karnataka".
- Gosh, Banerjee, Sampa, Utpal Kumar; Banerjee, Utpal K., (2006). Indian puppets. New Delhi: Abhinav publications. p. 78. ISBN 9788170174356. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- "Award for achievement". Online webpage of The Hindu (Chennai, India: The Hindu). 2006-03-07. Retrieved 2007-09-06.
- K.S., Upadhyaya (12 May 2001). "Sri Naranappa Uppooru". Udupi: Yakshagana.com. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Kota Shivarama Karanth (1 January 1997). Yakṣagāna. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-81-7017-357-1. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "Seminar on Karanth".
- Prof Sridhara Uppura; Diganta Sahitya publications; Managalore; 1998.
- Yakshagana Costumes of Karnataka; "The Craft and Artisans"; accessed November 2013
- The Hindu-Yakshagana Kendra has effectively popularised the art form
- "Open study-chairs for research on Yakshagana". Online webpage of The Hindu (Chennai, India: The Hindu). 2007-07-09. Retrieved 2007-09-06.
- "Traditional touch in theatre". Online webpage of The Telegraph. The Telegraph. Retrieved 2007-09-06.
- Ashton, Martha Bush; Yakshagana; published by Abhinav Publications; India; 1st edition (15 June 2003); ISBN 81-7017-047-8 and ISBN 978-81-7017-047-1
- Rao, Neelavara Lakshminarayan & Patil, Gorpadi Vittala; Yakshagana Swabodhini; published by: Yakshagana Kendra; MGA College; Udupi, India; 1st edition.
- Yakshagana Shruti Software
- Tala demonstration by Chande Mahabhaleshwara. Mudugodu.
- Interview - on History and Development of Yakshagana (Informal).
- Yakshagana Puppets
- Keremane Mela